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15 terms

structure of DNA

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nucleotide
a single building block of DNA, one deoxyribose sugar, one phosphate group, and one nitrogen base
purines
Adenine and Guanine, 2 ring structures
pyramidines
Cytosine and Thymine, 3 ring structures
antiparallel
The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.
histones
a protein which DNA entwines/ wraps around
chromatin
substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones, DNA and its proteins
semiconservative
replicated DNA consists of one original strand and one new strand, each new DNA conserves half of the original
Helicase
causes the DNA double helix to unzip during DNA replication
primase
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer
DNA polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule, can only add bases to an existing nucleic acid strand
ligase
enzyme responsible for joining strands of DNA, seals the sugar-phosphate backbones of the pieces, "to tie"
annealing helicase
rewinds any sections of the DNA molecule that remian unwound
RNA primer
short segment of RNA used to initiate synthesis of a new strand of DNA during replication
RNA polymerase
enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
Okazaki fragment
a new DNA strand, up to 150 nucleotides long, small pieces of DNA