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a single building block of DNA, one deoxyribose sugar, one phosphate group, and one nitrogen base


Adenine and Guanine, 2 ring structures


Cytosine and Thymine, 3 ring structures


The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.


a protein which DNA entwines/ wraps around


substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones, DNA and its proteins


replicated DNA consists of one original strand and one new strand, each new DNA conserves half of the original


causes the DNA double helix to unzip during DNA replication


An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer

DNA polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule, can only add bases to an existing nucleic acid strand


enzyme responsible for joining strands of DNA, seals the sugar-phosphate backbones of the pieces, "to tie"

annealing helicase

rewinds any sections of the DNA molecule that remian unwound

RNA primer

short segment of RNA used to initiate synthesis of a new strand of DNA during replication

RNA polymerase

enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription

Okazaki fragment

a new DNA strand, up to 150 nucleotides long, small pieces of DNA

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