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Drawing Conclusions

To determine the outcome, to summarize


Combining evidence in a text with what you already know to make a broad, universal statement


An educated guess, reading between the lines to figure out what the writer suggests but does not state directly

Loaded Words

Writing that is meant to change a reader's thinking or action


A dictionary definition


the feelings and associations that have come to be attached to a word


The use of language or of visual images to get us to believe or do something


Correct reasoning built on opinions supported by reasons and evidence


The support or proof that backs up an idea, conclusion, or opinion

Expert Opinion

Opinion from an expert to create a logical argument

Fallacious Reasoning

False reasoning

Hasty Generalizations

Based on incomplete evidence

Circular Reasoning

Says the same thing over and over again, each time using slightly different

Only-Cause Fallacy

A situation is seen as the result of only one cause. Situations often have many causes


Favors one point of view over another, ignores information that supports the other point of view


Type of persuasion used to keep us from thinking for ourselves. It relies on emotional appeal rather than logical arguments and reasoning

Bandwagon Appeal

Urges you to do somthing because everyone else is doing it. Often used in advertising


Uses a famous person to promote an idea or product

Snob Appeal

Advertisers use this when they associate their product with wealth, power, beauty

Emotional Appeal

Appeals to the reader's emotions.

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