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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 5 Test

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bone functions
support the body, protect soft organs, allow movement, store minerals and fats, blood cell formation
the adult skeleton has___ bones
206
bone tissue type- homogeneous, gives strength
compact bone
bone tissue type- small needle like pieces of bone, many open spaces, resists compression, "lightens" bone
spongy bone
type of bone with a shaft and heads situated at both ends, contain mostly compact bone (spongy at ends), make up limbs
long bones
type of bone that is generally cube shaped, contain mostly spongy bone, includes carpals and tarsals
short bones
a type of short bone which form within tendons (patella)
sesamoid bones
type of bone that is thin, flattened, usually curved, two thin layers of compact bone surround a layer of spongy bone, includes skull, ribs, sternum
flat bones
type of bone that is strangely shaped and doesn't fit into other bone categories, include vertebrae and hip bones
irregular bones
shaft of long bone, composed of compact bone
diaphysis
ends of long bone, composed of spongy bone
epiphysis
fibrous connective tissue membrane covering the outside of the diaphysis
periosteum
these secure periosteum to underlying bone
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
these supply bone cells with nutrients
arteries
covers the external surface of the epiphyses, decreases fiction at joint surfaces; made of hyaline cartilage
articular cartilage
flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone
epiphyseal plate
seen in adult bones, the remnant of the epiphyseal plate
epiphyseal line
cavity inside of the long bone shaft which contains yellow marrow in adults and red marrow for blood cell formation in infants
marrow (medullary) cavity
sites of hematopoiesis in adults
sternum, skull, ribs, pelvis, vertebral column, proximal ends of femur
surface features of bones
sites of attachment for muscles, tendons, ligaments; passages for nerves and blood vessels
a unit of bone containing central and matrix rings
osteon (Haversian system)
opening in the center of an osteon, carries blood vessels and nerves
central (Haversian) canal
canal perpendicular to the central canal, carries blood vessels and nerves
perforating (Volkmann's) canal
cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes), arranged in concentric rings called lamellae
lacunae
rings around the central canal, sites of lacunae
lamellae
tiny canals, radiate from the central canal to lacunae, form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a nutrient supply
canaliculi
Where does cartilage remain in adults?
bridge of nose, parts of ribs, joints
mature bone cells
osteocytes
bone-forming cells
osteoblasts
giant bone-destroying cells (break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium in response to parathyroid hormone)
osteoclasts
bone remodeling is performed by both _____________ and ______________ .
osteoblasts, osteoclasts
break in a bone
fracture
break that does not penetrate the skin
closed (simple) fracture
broken bone penetrates through the skin
open (compound) fracture
bone fractures are treated by __________ and __________
reduction, immobilization
steps of repairing bone fractures
hematoma, fibrocartilage callus, bony callus, permanent patch
two parts of the skull
cranium, facial bones
joints that join bones of the skull
sutures
in the skull, the only bone attached by a freely movable joint
mandible
hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane
paranasal sinuses
functions of paranasal sinuses
lighten the skull, give resonance and amplification to voice
inflammation/infection of the sinuses
sinusitis
the only bone that does not articulate with another bone, serves as a moveable base for the tongue, aids in swallowing and speech
hyoid bone
fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones in the fetal skull
fontanel
functions of the fetal fontanel
allow skull compression during birth and allow the brain to grow
the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions; form a c-shaped curvature in newborns
primary curvatures
discs in vertebrae are made of what?
fibrocartilage
the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions, develop after birth; form an s-shaped curvature in adults
secondary curvatures
formed by the fusion of five vertebrae
sacrum
formed by the fusion of 3-5 vertebrae-- the "tailbone"
coccyx
forms a cage to protect major organs; consists of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
bony thorax
the collarbone, articulates with the sternum medially and the scapula laterally
clavicle
the shoulder blade, articulates with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint, articulates with the arm bone at the glenoid cavity
scapula
single bone that forms the arm, head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula, trochlea/capitulum articulate with the bones of the forearm
humerus
medial bone of the forearm, coronoid process and olecranon articulate with the humerus
ulna
lateral bone of the forearm, head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus
radius
eight ones arranged in two rows of four bones in each hand, the wrist
carpals
the palm bones, five per hand
metacarpals
bones of the fingers and thumb
phalanges
formed by two coxal bones, composed of three pairs of fused bones- ilium, ischium, pubis
pelvic girdle
the pelvis protects what organs?
reproductive organs, urinary bladder, part of the large intestine
the thigh bone, the heaviest/strongest bone in the body, head articulates with the acetabulum, lateral/medial condyles articulate with the tibia in the lower leg
femur
shinbone; larger and medially oreitned, condyles form with femur to form the knee joint
tibia
thin and sticklike; lateral to the tibia, has no role in forming the knee joint
fibula
seven bones of the foot including the calcaneus and the talus
tarsals
five bones which form the sole of the foot
metatarsals
fourteen bones which form the toes
phalanges
what hold the bones of the feet in arched position?
tendons and ligaments
Bones of the foot are arranged into which three strong arches?
Medial longitudinal arch, transverse arch, lateral longitudinal arch
functions of joints
hold bones together, allow for mobility
located at the articulations of bones
joints
immovable joints (skull)
synarthroses
slightly movable joints (axial skeleton)
amphiarthroses
freely movable joints (limbs)
diarthroses
collagenic fibers that unite bones; GENERALLY IMMOVABLE
fibrous joints
cartilage that connects bones; IMMOVABLE OR SLIGHTLY MOVABLE
cartilaginous joints
joints which separate bones with a cavity filled with fluid
synovial joints
immobile type of fibrous joints found in the skull
sutures
type of fibrous joint that allows more movement than sutures but still immobile (examples= distal ends of the tibia and fibula)
syndesmoses
immobile type of fibrous joint
gomphosis
immobile type of cartilaginous joints
synchrondosis
slightly movable type of cartilaginous joints (examples= intervertebral joints)
symphysis
flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and filled with synovial fluid, not actually part of joint
bursae
elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
tendon sheath
inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction
bursitis
inflammation of tendon sheaths
tendonitis
inflammatory or degenerative disease of joints, most widespread crippling disease in the United States, causes change in structure of joint
arthritis
initial symptoms of arthritis
pain, stiffness, swelling of the joint
synovial joint: flat articulating surfaces, nonaxial
plane joint
synovial joint: cylindrical end of one bone fits into trough shape of another, uniaxial
hinge joint
synovial joint: round end of one bone fits into "sleeve" of another, uniaxial
pivot joint
synovial joint: egg-shaped surface fits into oval concavity, biaxial
condylar joint
synovial joint: concave and convex surfaces, biaxial
saddle joint
synovial joint: spherical head fits into round socket
ball-and-socket joint
most common chronic arthritis, affects articular cartilage, long-lasting, probably related to normal aging process
osteoarthritis
an autoimmune disease- immune system attacks joints; symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints, often leads to deformities
rheumatoid arthritis
inflammation of joitns is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood; more common in men, can usually be controlled with diet
gouty arthritis
fontanels are completely replaced with bone within ___ years after birth
two
bone-thinning disease afflicting 50 percent of women over 65 and 20 percent of men over 70; disease makes bones fragile, treated with estrogen
osteoporosis