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bone functions

support the body, protect soft organs, allow movement, store minerals and fats, blood cell formation

the adult skeleton has___ bones


bone tissue type- homogeneous, gives strength

compact bone

bone tissue type- small needle like pieces of bone, many open spaces, resists compression, "lightens" bone

spongy bone

type of bone with a shaft and heads situated at both ends, contain mostly compact bone (spongy at ends), make up limbs

long bones

type of bone that is generally cube shaped, contain mostly spongy bone, includes carpals and tarsals

short bones

a type of short bone which form within tendons (patella)

sesamoid bones

type of bone that is thin, flattened, usually curved, two thin layers of compact bone surround a layer of spongy bone, includes skull, ribs, sternum

flat bones

type of bone that is strangely shaped and doesn't fit into other bone categories, include vertebrae and hip bones

irregular bones

shaft of long bone, composed of compact bone


ends of long bone, composed of spongy bone


fibrous connective tissue membrane covering the outside of the diaphysis


these secure periosteum to underlying bone

perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

these supply bone cells with nutrients


covers the external surface of the epiphyses, decreases fiction at joint surfaces; made of hyaline cartilage

articular cartilage

flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone

epiphyseal plate

seen in adult bones, the remnant of the epiphyseal plate

epiphyseal line

cavity inside of the long bone shaft which contains yellow marrow in adults and red marrow for blood cell formation in infants

marrow (medullary) cavity

sites of hematopoiesis in adults

sternum, skull, ribs, pelvis, vertebral column, proximal ends of femur

surface features of bones

sites of attachment for muscles, tendons, ligaments; passages for nerves and blood vessels

a unit of bone containing central and matrix rings

osteon (Haversian system)

opening in the center of an osteon, carries blood vessels and nerves

central (Haversian) canal

canal perpendicular to the central canal, carries blood vessels and nerves

perforating (Volkmann's) canal

cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes), arranged in concentric rings called lamellae


rings around the central canal, sites of lacunae


tiny canals, radiate from the central canal to lacunae, form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a nutrient supply


Where does cartilage remain in adults?

bridge of nose, parts of ribs, joints

mature bone cells


bone-forming cells


giant bone-destroying cells (break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium in response to parathyroid hormone)


bone remodeling is performed by both _____________ and ______________ .

osteoblasts, osteoclasts

break in a bone


break that does not penetrate the skin

closed (simple) fracture

broken bone penetrates through the skin

open (compound) fracture

bone fractures are treated by __________ and __________

reduction, immobilization

steps of repairing bone fractures

hematoma, fibrocartilage callus, bony callus, permanent patch

two parts of the skull

cranium, facial bones

joints that join bones of the skull


in the skull, the only bone attached by a freely movable joint


hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane

paranasal sinuses

functions of paranasal sinuses

lighten the skull, give resonance and amplification to voice

inflammation/infection of the sinuses


the only bone that does not articulate with another bone, serves as a moveable base for the tongue, aids in swallowing and speech

hyoid bone

fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones in the fetal skull


functions of the fetal fontanel

allow skull compression during birth and allow the brain to grow

the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions; form a c-shaped curvature in newborns

primary curvatures

discs in vertebrae are made of what?


the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions, develop after birth; form an s-shaped curvature in adults

secondary curvatures

formed by the fusion of five vertebrae


formed by the fusion of 3-5 vertebrae-- the "tailbone"


forms a cage to protect major organs; consists of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae

bony thorax

the collarbone, articulates with the sternum medially and the scapula laterally


the shoulder blade, articulates with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint, articulates with the arm bone at the glenoid cavity


single bone that forms the arm, head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula, trochlea/capitulum articulate with the bones of the forearm


medial bone of the forearm, coronoid process and olecranon articulate with the humerus


lateral bone of the forearm, head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus


eight ones arranged in two rows of four bones in each hand, the wrist


the palm bones, five per hand


bones of the fingers and thumb


formed by two coxal bones, composed of three pairs of fused bones- ilium, ischium, pubis

pelvic girdle

the pelvis protects what organs?

reproductive organs, urinary bladder, part of the large intestine

the thigh bone, the heaviest/strongest bone in the body, head articulates with the acetabulum, lateral/medial condyles articulate with the tibia in the lower leg


shinbone; larger and medially oreitned, condyles form with femur to form the knee joint


thin and sticklike; lateral to the tibia, has no role in forming the knee joint


seven bones of the foot including the calcaneus and the talus


five bones which form the sole of the foot


fourteen bones which form the toes


what hold the bones of the feet in arched position?

tendons and ligaments

Bones of the foot are arranged into which three strong arches?

Medial longitudinal arch, transverse arch, lateral longitudinal arch

functions of joints

hold bones together, allow for mobility

located at the articulations of bones


immovable joints (skull)


slightly movable joints (axial skeleton)


freely movable joints (limbs)


collagenic fibers that unite bones; GENERALLY IMMOVABLE

fibrous joints

cartilage that connects bones; IMMOVABLE OR SLIGHTLY MOVABLE

cartilaginous joints

joints which separate bones with a cavity filled with fluid

synovial joints

immobile type of fibrous joints found in the skull


type of fibrous joint that allows more movement than sutures but still immobile (examples= distal ends of the tibia and fibula)


immobile type of fibrous joint


immobile type of cartilaginous joints


slightly movable type of cartilaginous joints (examples= intervertebral joints)


flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and filled with synovial fluid, not actually part of joint


elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon

tendon sheath

inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction


inflammation of tendon sheaths


inflammatory or degenerative disease of joints, most widespread crippling disease in the United States, causes change in structure of joint


initial symptoms of arthritis

pain, stiffness, swelling of the joint

synovial joint: flat articulating surfaces, nonaxial

plane joint

synovial joint: cylindrical end of one bone fits into trough shape of another, uniaxial

hinge joint

synovial joint: round end of one bone fits into "sleeve" of another, uniaxial

pivot joint

synovial joint: egg-shaped surface fits into oval concavity, biaxial

condylar joint

synovial joint: concave and convex surfaces, biaxial

saddle joint

synovial joint: spherical head fits into round socket

ball-and-socket joint

most common chronic arthritis, affects articular cartilage, long-lasting, probably related to normal aging process


an autoimmune disease- immune system attacks joints; symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints, often leads to deformities

rheumatoid arthritis

inflammation of joitns is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood; more common in men, can usually be controlled with diet

gouty arthritis

fontanels are completely replaced with bone within ___ years after birth


bone-thinning disease afflicting 50 percent of women over 65 and 20 percent of men over 70; disease makes bones fragile, treated with estrogen


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