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support the body, protect soft organs, allow movement, store minerals and fats, blood cell formation
bone tissue type- small needle like pieces of bone, many open spaces, resists compression, "lightens" bone
type of bone with a shaft and heads situated at both ends, contain mostly compact bone (spongy at ends), make up limbs
type of bone that is generally cube shaped, contain mostly spongy bone, includes carpals and tarsals
type of bone that is thin, flattened, usually curved, two thin layers of compact bone surround a layer of spongy bone, includes skull, ribs, sternum
type of bone that is strangely shaped and doesn't fit into other bone categories, include vertebrae and hip bones
covers the external surface of the epiphyses, decreases fiction at joint surfaces; made of hyaline cartilage
cavity inside of the long bone shaft which contains yellow marrow in adults and red marrow for blood cell formation in infants
marrow (medullary) cavity
sites of hematopoiesis in adults
sternum, skull, ribs, pelvis, vertebral column, proximal ends of femur
surface features of bones
sites of attachment for muscles, tendons, ligaments; passages for nerves and blood vessels
canal perpendicular to the central canal, carries blood vessels and nerves
perforating (Volkmann's) canal
tiny canals, radiate from the central canal to lacunae, form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a nutrient supply
giant bone-destroying cells (break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium in response to parathyroid hormone)
the only bone that does not articulate with another bone, serves as a moveable base for the tongue, aids in swallowing and speech
the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions; form a c-shaped curvature in newborns
the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions, develop after birth; form an s-shaped curvature in adults
forms a cage to protect major organs; consists of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
the shoulder blade, articulates with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint, articulates with the arm bone at the glenoid cavity
single bone that forms the arm, head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula, trochlea/capitulum articulate with the bones of the forearm
formed by two coxal bones, composed of three pairs of fused bones- ilium, ischium, pubis
the thigh bone, the heaviest/strongest bone in the body, head articulates with the acetabulum, lateral/medial condyles articulate with the tibia in the lower leg
Bones of the foot are arranged into which three strong arches?
Medial longitudinal arch, transverse arch, lateral longitudinal arch
type of fibrous joint that allows more movement than sutures but still immobile (examples= distal ends of the tibia and fibula)
flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and filled with synovial fluid, not actually part of joint
inflammatory or degenerative disease of joints, most widespread crippling disease in the United States, causes change in structure of joint
most common chronic arthritis, affects articular cartilage, long-lasting, probably related to normal aging process
an autoimmune disease- immune system attacks joints; symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints, often leads to deformities
inflammation of joitns is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood; more common in men, can usually be controlled with diet
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