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Gitlow v. New York

established selective incorporation of the Bill of rights; states cannot deny freedom of speech; protected through the 14th amendment

Engle v. Vitale

Mandatory prayer in schools (even nondenominational) is a violation of the establishment clause: unconstitutional

New York Times v. US

prior restraint; the Supreme Court refused to prevent the publication of The Pentagon Papers, a classified documentary history of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, on national security ground

Tinker v. Des Moines

Students have the right to symbolic speech at school as long as it is not disruptive

Texas v. Johnson

burning a flag is a form of symbolic speech; symbolic speech is legal as long as it isn't disruptive

Schenck v. United States

Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech

Brandenburg v. Ohio

direct incitement test; even the KKK has the first amendment right of freedom of speech

Near v. Minnesota

Freedom of the press applies to state governments, so that they cannot impose prior restraint on newspapers. (we let haters talk so we all can talk)

Plessy v. Ferguson

separate but equal is legal

Boy Scouts of America v. Dale

The boy scouts were allowed to dismiss a leader after learning that he was gay, holding that freedom of association outweighed the New Jersey anti-discrimination statute.

Mapp v. Ohio

Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)

Gideon v. Wainwright

state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.

Furman v. Georgia

Death penalty is cruel and unusual if carried out in "an arbitrary, discriminatory, and racist manner".

Gregg v. Georgia

(post Furman v. Georgia) supports the new capital sentencing standards

Lemon v. Kurtzman

Court ruled that NY couldn't use state funds to pay parochial school teacher's salaries

MIranda v. Arizona

The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police (right to remain silent, right to an attorney, and know that anything you say can be used against you)

Griswold v. Connecticut

law that disallowed contraceptives was ruled unconstitutional; "zones of privacy"

Roe v. Wade

law prohibiting abortion violated women's constitutional right to privacy

Marbury v. Madison

establishes the Supreme Court's power of JUDICIAL REVIEW

Brown v. Board of of Education

separate but equal is inherently unequal; "all deliberate speed"

Brown v. Board of Education II

same as the first but it was mandated that schools desegregate (all deliberate speed wasn't fast enough)

Elkins v. United States

bad evidence handed to the federal authorities on a silver platter is unconstitutional due to a 4th amendment violation

Weeks v. US

Established exclusionary rule, evidence gotten without a warrant isn't valid in a federal court

McDonald v. Chicago

Supreme Court decided that 2nd amendment protects individual gun ownership at the state level

Wolf v. Colorado

Fourteenth Amendment did not impose specific limitations on criminal justice in the states, and that illegally obtained evidence did not necessarily have to be excluded from trials in all cases.

Barron v. Baltimore

The Bill of Rights only applies to the National Government

Bowers v. Hardwick

Court ruled that the constitution did not protect the practice of sodomy between homosexuals, and that the states could ban sodomy.

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health

right to privacy in cases of assisted suicide are unconstitutional; living will designating life instructions are constitutional

Palko v. Connecticut

The Fifth Amendment right to protection against double jeopardy is not a fundamental right incorporated by the Fourteenth Amendment to the individual states.

Chaplinski v. New Hampshire

Jehovah's witness spoke out against public officer (GD rackateer); "Fighting words" (inflict injury, incite immediate breach of peace) not protected under 1st amend

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