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MED165 Night Human Anatomy & Physiology II Term3 2012 ECPI University


fluid connective tissue of cardiovascular system; contains blood cells (red & white) and plasma

5 functions of blood

1. Transport substances (O2, nutrients, etc)
2. Restrict fluid loss (ie, blood)
3. Defend from pathogens
4. Regulate pH and ions
5. Stabilize body temperature

blood pH

7.35 - 7.45;
or 7.40 ± 0.05


liquid portion of blood;
made of water (92%), proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and waste

3 plasma proteins

fibrinogen, Albumin, and globulin;
made by the liver


most numerous plasma protein;
maintains osmotic pressure of blood;
"attracts" water to osmose back into blood stream from tissues


plasma protein; transport hydrophobic (water-frightened; ie, oily) molecules; immunoglobulins function in immunity and allergy


plasma protein cleaved into fibrin by thrombin during blood coagulation;
last step of blood clotting


blood-clotting protein formed when thrombin cleaves fibrinogen during coagulation (clotting) process

4 blood cells

Erythrocytes (RBCs)
Leukocytes (WBCs)
Hemocytoblasts (stem cells)
Thrombocytes (platelets, which are cell fragments not cells)


red blood cell;
full of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen;
5,000,000 cells/mm3
99.9% of blood cells are RBCs;
formed in red bone marrow


oxygen-carrying molecule found in erythrocytes;
made of heme (pigment) and globin (protein);
heme contains Iron (Fe2+), which turns red when bound to O2;
Hgb range = 12-18g/100cc


orange-yellow pigment in bile;
breakdown product of hemoglobin from dead erythrocytes;


caused by excess bilirubin, which turns skin yellow-orange; treated with light exposure


process of making red blood cells


process of making any blood cell


white blood cell (WBC); defend body by:
1. protecting against pathogen invasion
2. removing damaged or abnormal cells
3. removing toxins and wastes
formed in red bone marrow or lymph tissue;
normal count: 5,000-9,000 cells/mm3

differential count

count of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in stained blood smear;
determines abnormailities or changes in WBC populations


most abundant WBC;
population increases exponentially in acute infection;


phagocyte WBC;
engulfs antibodies linked to antigens;
populations increase in allergic conditions


WBC which releases histamine and heparin;
aka mast cells, when in tissue;
populations increase in chronic inflammation & infection


anticoagulating protein, which slows clotting;
released in response to injury


vasodilating protein, released after injury or allergy;
increases blood vessel permeability, which leads to fluid accumulating in tissue (edema), compressing nerves (pain), warmth, and redness;
attracts lymphocytes


largest phagocytic WBC;
aka macrophage


1 of 3 types of WBC (B-/T-/NK-lymphocyte)providing specific immunity (B & T) and some innate immunity (NK);
smallest WBCs;
25% of total WBC population


differentiates in bone;
makes antibodies;
aka plasma cell


differentiates in thymus;
performs cell-mediated immunity

4 inflammation signs



cell fragment involved in blood clotting;
aka platelet;
forms platelet plug to temporarily plug tears in blood vessel;
250,000-500,000 platelets/mm3


blood clumping or bacteria clumping, due to antibodies sticking to each other

vitamin K

essential nutrient involved in blood clotting process;
vitamin "Klot"


clot in intact vessels


abnormal particle (eg air bubble or clot) circulating in blood


process of developing clot in vessel


when embolus travels to, lodges into, and obstructs a vessel


specialist treating diseases and disorders of blood and associated tissues

blood type

identifies which cell-surface protein(s) are on RBCs;
4 main classes: A, B, O, Rh-factor


any substance (toxin, cell-surface protein) that stimulates production of antibodies;
anything body may recognize as foreign


protein released by B-lymphocytes in response to antigen; antibody sticks to antigen;
antibody signals phagocytic eosinophils


cell-surface protein that may be recognized as an antigen, similar to A and B

crossmatching and typing

test for compatibility of blood transfusions

type O negative

universal blood donor; aka O-
RBCs have none of the main antigens (A, B, or Rh), so recipient should not create antibodies and reject the blood

type AB positive

universal blood receiver; aka AB+
RBCs have all major antigens, thus recipient does not recognize any additional antigens in any type of blood (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB-, AB+, O-, or O+)

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