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43 terms

Ch 12 Cardiovascular: Blood LPN

MED165 Night Human Anatomy & Physiology II Term3 2012 ECPI University
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blood
fluid connective tissue of cardiovascular system; contains blood cells (red & white) and plasma
5 functions of blood
1. Transport substances (O2, nutrients, etc)
2. Restrict fluid loss (ie, blood)
3. Defend from pathogens
4. Regulate pH and ions
5. Stabilize body temperature
blood pH
7.35 - 7.45;
or 7.40 ± 0.05
plasma
liquid portion of blood;
made of water (92%), proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and waste
3 plasma proteins
fibrinogen, Albumin, and globulin;
made by the liver
albumin
most numerous plasma protein;
maintains osmotic pressure of blood;
"attracts" water to osmose back into blood stream from tissues
globulin
plasma protein; transport hydrophobic (water-frightened; ie, oily) molecules; immunoglobulins function in immunity and allergy
fibrinogen
plasma protein cleaved into fibrin by thrombin during blood coagulation;
last step of blood clotting
fibrin
blood-clotting protein formed when thrombin cleaves fibrinogen during coagulation (clotting) process
4 blood cells
Erythrocytes (RBCs)
Leukocytes (WBCs)
Hemocytoblasts (stem cells)
Thrombocytes (platelets, which are cell fragments not cells)
erythrocyte
red blood cell;
full of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen;
5,000,000 cells/mm3
99.9% of blood cells are RBCs;
formed in red bone marrow
hemoglobin
oxygen-carrying molecule found in erythrocytes;
made of heme (pigment) and globin (protein);
heme contains Iron (Fe2+), which turns red when bound to O2;
Hgb range = 12-18g/100cc
bilirubin
orange-yellow pigment in bile;
breakdown product of hemoglobin from dead erythrocytes;
jaundice
caused by excess bilirubin, which turns skin yellow-orange; treated with light exposure
erythropoiesis
process of making red blood cells
hemopoiesis
process of making any blood cell
leukocyte
white blood cell (WBC); defend body by:
1. protecting against pathogen invasion
2. removing damaged or abnormal cells
3. removing toxins and wastes
formed in red bone marrow or lymph tissue;
normal count: 5,000-9,000 cells/mm3
differential count
count of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in stained blood smear;
determines abnormailities or changes in WBC populations
neutrophil
most abundant WBC;
phagocyte;
population increases exponentially in acute infection;
eosinophil
phagocyte WBC;
engulfs antibodies linked to antigens;
populations increase in allergic conditions
basophil
WBC which releases histamine and heparin;
aka mast cells, when in tissue;
populations increase in chronic inflammation & infection
heparin
anticoagulating protein, which slows clotting;
released in response to injury
histamine
vasodilating protein, released after injury or allergy;
increases blood vessel permeability, which leads to fluid accumulating in tissue (edema), compressing nerves (pain), warmth, and redness;
attracts lymphocytes
monocyte
largest phagocytic WBC;
aka macrophage
lymphocyte
1 of 3 types of WBC (B-/T-/NK-lymphocyte)providing specific immunity (B & T) and some innate immunity (NK);
smallest WBCs;
25% of total WBC population
B-lymphocyte
differentiates in bone;
makes antibodies;
aka plasma cell
T-lymphocyte
differentiates in thymus;
performs cell-mediated immunity
4 inflammation signs
swelling
pain
redness
heat
thrombocyte
cell fragment involved in blood clotting;
aka platelet;
forms platelet plug to temporarily plug tears in blood vessel;
250,000-500,000 platelets/mm3
agglutination
blood clumping or bacteria clumping, due to antibodies sticking to each other
vitamin K
essential nutrient involved in blood clotting process;
vitamin "Klot"
thrombus
clot in intact vessels
embolus
abnormal particle (eg air bubble or clot) circulating in blood
thrombosis
process of developing clot in vessel
embolism
when embolus travels to, lodges into, and obstructs a vessel
hematologist
specialist treating diseases and disorders of blood and associated tissues
blood type
identifies which cell-surface protein(s) are on RBCs;
4 main classes: A, B, O, Rh-factor
antigen
any substance (toxin, cell-surface protein) that stimulates production of antibodies;
anything body may recognize as foreign
antibody
protein released by B-lymphocytes in response to antigen; antibody sticks to antigen;
antibody signals phagocytic eosinophils
Rh-factor
cell-surface protein that may be recognized as an antigen, similar to A and B
crossmatching and typing
test for compatibility of blood transfusions
type O negative
universal blood donor; aka O-
RBCs have none of the main antigens (A, B, or Rh), so recipient should not create antibodies and reject the blood
type AB positive
universal blood receiver; aka AB+
RBCs have all major antigens, thus recipient does not recognize any additional antigens in any type of blood (A+, A-, B+, B-, AB-, AB+, O-, or O+)