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Chapter 3 Indo-European Test
Terms in this set (78)
Where did the first Indo-European groups come from?
Where were the steppes located?
dry grasslands north of the Caucasus Mountains (in between the Black and Caspian Sea)
What type of people were the Indo-Europeans?
Where did the Hittites occupy and begin their civilization?
Anatolia also can be called the Asia Minor
Where is Anatolia located?
Large peninsula in modern day turkey
The Hittites had many city states that eventually united to create the Hittite Empire with the capital ______________?
The Hittite empire conquered Mesopotamia but struggled to occupy Egypt so they two civilizations created a ______________?
What language did the Hittites adopt?
What culture did the Hittites adopt?
Mesopotamian- including the writing system Cuneiform
What Hittites excelled in warfare and war technology such as ______________?
chariots and iron weapons
What accomplishment did the Hittites first adopt?
They were the first to work with iron and harden it into war weapons.
The Aryans were another indo- European group. Where did they arrive from?
came through the Hindu Kush mountains into India
What area did the Aryans occupy?
Indus River valley and eventually almost all of the Indian Subcontinent
The Hittites worshiped ____________ the sky god but other than that they were not interested in Religion or art and literature.
The Aryans brought their own religion into India. Who did they worship?
nature gods such as the god of lightning, storms etc..
The Aryans had collections of sacred literature known as ___________?
What main god did the Aryans worshiped?
The Aryans developed a caste system. What was the order?
Brahmins (priests) > Warriors > Traders > Peasants
The Aryans had no written language until they developed their own writing system known as ______________?
What were Shrudas? (Aryan)
Was was Varna? (Aryan)
Who were the untouchables?
lowest social class, not included in the caste system, their touch endangered the ritual purity of others
The Aryan Kingdom was known as ______________?
What was Mahabharata?
The great epic of India that reflects the struggles that took place in India as the Aryan kings worked to control indian lands
One part of the Mahabharata was the Bhagavad Gita. What story does it tell?
warrior prince about to go to war, his chariot driver is Krishna, a god
What is considered the most important Veda?
The Rig Veda
Who were the dasas?
Aryan enemies , town dwellers who lived in communities protected by walls
What does Hinduism mean?
Santana Dharma, eternal law
How is hinduism different from most current religions?
It cannot be traced back to one founder.
How do hindus view religion?
a way of liberating the soul from illusions and the mistakes of life
What were the upanishads?
written dialogues or discussions on how to achieve liberation from desires
What do hindus call their state of perfect understanding of all things?
What is the difference between the atman and the brahman?
atman: individual soul of a living being
brahman: world soul that unites all atmans
The process in which the soul is reborn again and again until moksha is achieved
What is karma?
good or bad deeds that influence life circumstances
The world soul Brahman sometimes held the personalities of three gods:
Brahma the creator
Vishnu the protector (triad)
Shiva the destroyer
What was Jainism?
religion that believed that everything in the universe had a soul
Who is the founder of Buddhism?
Siddhartha spent six years seeking ___________, wisdom.
After many days of meditation, Siddhartha reached enlightenment. From then on he was known as the ______________.
Buddha, the enlightened one
Siddhartha laid out the four main ideas to reach enlightenment known as:
the four noble truths
What was the eightfold path?
a guide to behavior, if someone followed the path, they could reach nirvana
What was nirvana?
Buddhas word for release from selfishness and pain
What is the Sangha?
entire buddhist religious order and community
What is the dharma?
buddhist doctrines and teachings
What makes up the 3 jewels of Buddhism?
Buddha, Dharma and the Sangha
What was Nalanda?
A monastery that developed into a great university
How was Buddhism spread?
movement of trade throughout Europe made it the most widespread religion in east Asia.
Who were the Minoans?
powerful seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern mediterranean sea
Where did the Minoans live?
Crete an island on the southern edge of the Aegean Sea
What were the Minoans known for?
Their fine pottery
what was knossos
the capital city of the Minoans where archaeologists found remains of an advanced and thriving culture
Who was king minos?
king of knossos and was believed to have owned a half human half bull called a minotaur
How did this thriving culture mysteriously end?
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
what kind of activities did the minoans enjoy?
boxing, wrestling and bull leaping
After cretes decline, who became the most powerful traders along the mediterranean?
Where did the Phoenicians settle?
Area now known as Lebanon
The Phoenicians founded a number of wealthy city states such as....
Byblos, Tyre and Sidon and these were very important trading centers
What were some of the achievements of the Phoenicians?
remarkable shipbuilders and seafarers and were thought to be the first people to sail around the coast of Africa
In Sidon and Tyre, both were known for their production of......
Byblos was known to be a major trading center for.......
Phoenicians built colonies along the coast of Africa and their greatest colony was.......
How was the red purple dye produced?
Snails called Murex that lived off the waters of Sidon and Tyre
The Phoenician alphabet was considered their greatest legacy. How did it work?
Phonetic- one sign was used for one sound
How did the Phoenician legacy end?
eastern cities were captured by Assyrians and later the Babylonians and then of the Persian empire led by King Cyrus I
What was the ancient home of the Hebrews?
Where was Canaan?
region at the eastern end of the mediterranean called palestine, canaan laid between the Jordan and Mediterranean Sea
What was the Torah?
first 5 books of the hebrew bible, considered the most sacred writings in their tradition
God chose Abraham to be the father of the Hebrew people. Who was Abraham?
sheperd from Ur
Hebrews were monotheistic. What does that mean?
belief in one god- Yahweh
god was not a physical being but instead he was all spiritual
Abraham promised to obey and worship Yahweh and in return Yahweh promised to protect Abraham and his people. This mutual promise is called a.....
Who was Moses?
the man who led the hebrews out of slavery in Egypt
Moses received the ten commandments from God while he was praying on mt. sinai. What were the ten commandments?
the basis for the civil and religious laws of judaism
What was the new covenant?
the ten commandments
Prophets taught that the Hebrews had a duty to worship God and live justly with one another. The emphasis on right conduct and the worship of one god is known as.......?
Judah, the only large tribe left after many outside attacks on the other tribes. The people of this tribe became known as ___________ and their religion was called__________.
The Hebrews united under 3 kings:
Saul,David and Solomon
Solomon greatest achievement was...
beautifying the city of Jerusalem
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