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Skeletal muscle

Is voluntary, striated, and made up of long slender striped cells. Contracts quickly in response to stimulation, and act in opposing groups

Smooth muscle

Is involuntary, non-striated, and composed of sprindle-shaped cells. Found in viscera, especially the stomach. Contracts slowly

Cardiac muscle

Is Involuntary, partially striated; special tissue found only in the heart

Major functions of muscles

Assist in conducting nerve impulses to brain, assist in movement, produce heat, and protect organs


Muscles are enclosed in this


When epimyseum extends in a strong, tough cord that is continuous with the periosteum


Superior, less moveable part of muscle

Body or belly

Middle portion of muscle


Distal end of muscle


The ability to resume former length when stretching force is removed

Tone or tonus

Slight tension present in the muscle even when muscle is resting.


The ability to transmit impulses


The ability to contract or shorten and to thicken when a muscle shortens; it exerts pull


The ability to lengthen or stretch and hold


Tense a part; make more rigid


Turn palm downward


Lift a part


Ring-like muscles that close body openings


Move away from a part


Revolve a part on it's axis


Turn the palm upward


Bend a joint


Lower a part


Move toward a part or toward the midline


Straighten a joint

Muscle contraction

Caused by response to natural or artificial stimulus


Muscles that move a part lie ( ) to the part they move

Simple sugars

Muscle cells get energy to contract from ( )

Three criteria for remembering shapes of muscles

Action, shape, and numbers of divisions

Abdominal muscles

Broad thin muscles which support internal organs, assist in respiration, and assist in eliminating waste from the large intestine and bladder

Chest muscles

Assist in respiration and movements of the neck, arms, and trunk

Back muscles

Large broad muscles attached to the vertebrae which allow body to bend, turn, and stand erect

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