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32 terms

Anatomy and physiology II

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Skeletal muscle
Is voluntary, striated, and made up of long slender striped cells. Contracts quickly in response to stimulation, and act in opposing groups
Smooth muscle
Is involuntary, non-striated, and composed of sprindle-shaped cells. Found in viscera, especially the stomach. Contracts slowly
Cardiac muscle
Is Involuntary, partially striated; special tissue found only in the heart
Major functions of muscles
Assist in conducting nerve impulses to brain, assist in movement, produce heat, and protect organs
Epimyseum
Muscles are enclosed in this
Tendon
When epimyseum extends in a strong, tough cord that is continuous with the periosteum
Origin
Superior, less moveable part of muscle
Body or belly
Middle portion of muscle
Insertion
Distal end of muscle
Elasticity
The ability to resume former length when stretching force is removed
Tone or tonus
Slight tension present in the muscle even when muscle is resting.
Conductivity
The ability to transmit impulses
Contractility
The ability to contract or shorten and to thicken when a muscle shortens; it exerts pull
Extensibility
The ability to lengthen or stretch and hold
Tensors
Tense a part; make more rigid
Pronators
Turn palm downward
Levators
Lift a part
Sphincters
Ring-like muscles that close body openings
Abductors
Move away from a part
Rotators
Revolve a part on it's axis
Supinators
Turn the palm upward
Flexors
Bend a joint
Depressors
Lower a part
Adductors
Move toward a part or toward the midline
Extensors
Straighten a joint
Muscle contraction
Caused by response to natural or artificial stimulus
Proximal
Muscles that move a part lie ( ) to the part they move
Simple sugars
Muscle cells get energy to contract from ( )
Three criteria for remembering shapes of muscles
Action, shape, and numbers of divisions
Abdominal muscles
Broad thin muscles which support internal organs, assist in respiration, and assist in eliminating waste from the large intestine and bladder
Chest muscles
Assist in respiration and movements of the neck, arms, and trunk
Back muscles
Large broad muscles attached to the vertebrae which allow body to bend, turn, and stand erect