Terms in this set (26)
What is imagery
Equivalent terms include: visualization, mental rehearsal mental practice.
Imagery involves creating or recreating an experience in your mind.
Involves all of the senses, mood and emotions.
Where do athletes use imagery
Athletes employ imagery more in competition than in training.
When do athletes use imagery
Before, during and after practice; outside of practice; before during, or after a competition; and for rehabilitation.
Why do athletes use imagery
For motivational and cognitive functions.
Factors in effectiveness of imagery
1. Nature of the task.
2. Skill level of the performer.
3. Imaging ability.
4. Combination with practice.
Nature of the task
Imagery affects performance the most on cognitive tasks.
Such as golfing.
Skill level of the performer.
Imagery helps performance for both novice and experienced performers.
Effects are somewhat stronger for experienced performers.
Imagery is more effective when individuals are higher in their ability to image.
Have better vividness and control.
Combination with practice
Using imagery along with physical practice.
Five Theories of How imagery works.
1. Psychoneuromuscular theory.
2. Symbolic learning theory.
3. Triple code model.
4. Bioinformational theory.
5. Psychological skills explanations.
Imagery programs muscles for actions.
Imagery facilitates the learning of motor skills because imagined events innervate the muscles like physical practice of the movement; they strengthen neural pathways.
Symbolic Learning Theory
Imagery helps us understand movement patterns.
Imagery functions as a coding systems to help people understand and acquire movement patterns.
Images are stimulus/reponse propositions.
It is critical to imagine not only stimulus propositions but also response propositions.
Triple Code model
Imagery comprises the image, somatic response, and meaning of the image.
Primary importance is placed on the psychophysiology of imagery and understanding the imagery parts: the image, the somatic response, and the meaning of the image.
Psychological skills Hypothesis
Imagery develops mental skills.
Imagery develops and refines mental skills and reduces anxiety.
Uses of imagery
1. Improve concentration/confidence.
2. cope with pain and adversity.
3. anxiety management.
4. Acquire and practice sport skills.
Types of imagery
1. Internal imagery.
2. External imagery.
Imagine the execution of a skill from your own vantage point.
First person perspective.
View yourself form the perspective of an external observer.
Like watching a video of yourself.
Keys to effective imagery
Use all the senses to make images as vivid and detailed as possible.
Imagine being at home, a positive performance of a skill, a best performance.
Learn to manipulate your images so they do what you want them to
Developing an imagery training program
1. Tailor imagery programs to an athlete's individual needs, abilities, and interests.
2. The first step in developing an imagery program is evaluating the athlete's imagery skills.
3. Imagery must be individualized and practiced.
1. Proper setting.
2. Relaxed concentration.
3. Realistic expectations; sufficient motivation.
4. Vivid and controllable images.
5. Positive focus.
7. Imagining execution and outcome.
8. Imagining in real time.
When to use imagery
1. Before and after practice.
2. Before and after competition.
3. During breaks in action.
4. During personal time.
5. When recovering from injury.