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40 terms

Blood and Heart

Circulatory System lecture selected slides
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pericardium
a space called the pericardial cavity found between the parietal and visceral membranes, containing 5-30ml of pericardial fluid which lubricates the membranes allowing the heart to beat without friction
semilunar valves
pulmonary and aortic valves that regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles into the great arteries
pulmonary valve
valve that controls blood flow from the RV into the pulmonary arteries
aortic valve
valve that controls the opening for oxygen-rich blood from the LV into the aorta
triscupid valve
valve that regulates blood flow between RA and RV
mitral valve
valve that lets oxygen-rich blood from the LA into the LV
coronary circulation
vascular system which supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart by the aorta branching off into two main coronary blood vessels
left coronary artery
coronary artery with two branches that supplies blood to the left side of the heart
left anterior descending artery
a branch of the left coronary artery that supplies the apex, interventricular septum, and anterior walls of ventricles
circumflex artery
a branch of the left coronary artery that supplies the LA and posterior wall of the LV
right coronary artery
coronary artery that supplies blood mainly to the right side of the heart
blood
a thick tissue which is 80% water and 20% solid, made of a variety of cells, each with a different job; made by cells inside bones' delivers O2 and nutrients to cells and removes CO2 and wate, keeps body at right temp, carries hormones to cells, sends antibodies to fight infection, contains clotting factors helping blood to clot and tissues to heal
4-6L
average amount of blood in an adult
8%
blood as a mean fraction of body weight
5-6L
volume of blood in an adult male
4-5L
volume of blood in an adult female
80-85ml/kg
volume of blood/body weight
38C
mean temperature of blood
7.35-7.45
pH of blood
4.5-5.5
viscosity (relative to water) of whole blood
2
viscosity (relative to water) of plasma
280-296mOsm/L
osmolarity of blood
0.9%
mean salinity of blood
37-48%
hematocrit of female blood
45-52%
hematocrit of male blood
12-16g/dl
haemoglobin in female blood
13-18g/dl
haemoglobin in male blood
4.2-5.4million/uL
female mean RBC count
4.6-6.2million/uL
male mean RBC count
120 days
life span of a RBC
130,000-360,000/uL
platelet count in blood
5,000-10,000/uL
total WBC count of blood
albumins (60%), globulins (36%), fibrinogen (4%)
3 major proteins of the blood plasma
erythrocytes (RBCs), platelets, leukocytes (WBCs)
3 formed elements of blood
granulocytes, agranulocytes
2 types of leukocytes (WBCs)
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
3 types of granulocytes
lymphocytes, monocytes
2 types of agranulocytes
erythrocytes
a disc-shaped cell with a thick rim and thin sunken center, 7.5um in diameter, 2um thick at rim, with a red pigment due to presence of hemoglobin (carries O2 and CO2); picks up O2 from lungs to deliver to tissues elsewhere; picks up CO2 from tissues to unload in lungs
neutrophils
a type of granulocyte which makes up 60-70% of WBCs; 4,150 cells/uL; 9-12um in diameter; nucleus has 3-5 lobes in S or C shaped array with fine reddish/violet granules in cytoplasm; carries out phagocytosis of bacteria and release of antimicrobial chemicals; number increases in bacterial infection
platelets
fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm, also called thrombocytes, 2-4um in diameter which secrete procoagulants/clotting factors which promote blood clotting which stops the blood from flowing out of the body when a vein/artery is broken;130,000-400,000 platelets/uL