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Chapter 13: The Heart

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atria
upper chambers of the heart
ventricles
lower chambers of the heart
myocardium
cardiac tissue
endocardium
smooth tissue lining each chamber
pericardium
covering of the heart
cardiac tamponade
fluid fills pericardium layers causing compression of the heart
heart action
systole
diastole
systole
contraction of the heart
atrial
ventricular
diastole
relaxation of the heart
atrioventricular valves
separates the atria and the ventricles
bicuspid/mitral valve
tricuspid valve
bicuspid/mitral valve
located between left and right atrium and left ventricle
tricuspid valve
located between right atrium right ventricle
chordae tendineae
attach AV valves to wall of the heart
semilunar valves
valves from ventricles to arteries aways from heart
pulmonary semilunar
aortic semilunar valve
pulmonary semilunar
from right ventricle to pulmonary artery
aortic semilunar valve
from left ventricle to aorta
valve problems
incompetent valves
stenosed valves
rheumatic heart disease
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
incompetent valves
leak, allowing blood to flow back where it came
stenosed valves
narrower than normal, slowing blood flow
rheumatic heart disease
strep infection that attacks cardiac valves
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
valve that extends back into left atrium and allows leaking of blood backward
heart sounds
lub dup
heart murmurs
lub
associated with AV valve closings
dup
associated with closing of the semilunar valves and ventricles undergoing diastole
heart murmurs
can be heard as a swishing sound as the lub dup ends
artery
carries blood away from heart
vein
carries blood to heart
capillaries
smallest blood vessel responsible for nutrient exchange, connect A&V
pulmonary circulation
movement of blood to lungs
systemic circulation
from left ventricle to entire body
coronary circulation
blood movement to the heart; right and left coronary artery-first branch of the aorta
myocardial infarction
heart attack
atherosoclerosis
hardening of arteries due to lipid buildup; angina pectoris=sever chest pain when cardiac muscle is lacking oxygen
cardiac cycle
.8 sec to complete systole and diastole of atriums and ventricles
stroke volume-amount of blood pushed thorugh the ventricles
5 liters of blood pumped per ventricle per minute
heart conduction
sinoatrial node
atrioventricular node
AV bundle/bundle of His
purkinje fibers
cardiac disorders
heart failure
cardiomyopathy
congestive heart failure
heart failure
inability to pump enough blood to sustain life
cardiomyopathy
disease of heart
congestive heart failure
"left-sided heart failure"
retaining of fluids
tachycardia
100+ beats per minute when resting
bradycardia
60- per minute