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American Imperialism & Teddy Roosevelt
Terms in this set (15)
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treaties with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic. Established the foundation later for FDR's "Good Neighbor" policy --> establishment of "protectorates"
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba. The amendment was passed as many in the muckraking press were suggesting that the Cuban people would be better off "under the protection" of the U.S
Dawes Severalty Act
Passed with the intent to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream of American life by dissolving tribes as legal entities and eliminating tribal ownership of land.
Intended to turn Native Americans into farmers and landowners by providing cooperating families with 160 acres of reservation land for farming or 320 acres for grazing. In the eyes of supporters, this law would "civilize" the Indians by weaning them from their nomadic life, by treating them as individuals rather than as members of their tribes, and by readying them for citizenship. Although generally well intentioned, the law undermined Indian culture, in part by restricting their hunting rights on former reservation lands. Much of the best reservation land eventually passed into the hands of whites.
The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Open Door Policy
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay (1899), reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
The U.S. built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Colombians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the U.S. to build the canal.
How did Roosevelt's' policies in Latin America demonstrate American power in the region, and why did they arouse opposition from Latin Americans?
Roosevelt's policies in Latin America demonstrated American power in the region, by telling other countries that only the US was to intervene. It aroused opposition from Latin America, because it seemed like too big of an exercise of power.
The Filipino rebellion against US rule and the war to suppress it
The Filipinos rebelled against US rule, because they wanted independence. Aguinaldo rose up as an insurrectionist. The Filipino war was long and more costly than the Spanish American War, but in the end, Aguinaldo was captured. However, the Philippines were granted their freedom on July 4th.
Roosevelt's other diplomatic achievements, particularly in relation to Japan
Roosevelt facilitated a peace between Russia and Japan by holding a meeting where both parties could meet and settle on a resolution to the conflict. However, he created enemies with both sides in the process. Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
What were the essential principles of Roosevelt's foreign policy, and how did he apply them to specific situations?
The essential principles of Roosevelt's foreign policy was demanding respect from others by a show of great power, instead of a bunch of talk. He applied this when Japan was incensed by the treatment of their citizens in the San Francisco public schools. He sent a grand white fleet to Japan to settle the conflict, partly to show that the US was not a country to be messed with.
What were the central issues in America's relations with China and Japan? How did Roosevelt handle tense relations with Japan?
The central issue in America's relation with China was nonintervention and respecting territorial rights. The central issue in America's relation with Japan was pride. Roosevelt handled the tense relations with Japan by forcing the San Francisco school board to accept the Gentlemen's Agreement, and sending a grand fleet of ships to display the great power of the US. The US also signed the Root-Takihara Treaty that stated that both sides would respect each other's territorial holdings
What were the strengths and weaknesses of Theodore Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy? What were the benefits of TR's activism and what were its drawbacks?
The strengths in Theodore Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy was that it produced results. The Panama Canal was built, the agreement between Japan and Russia was reached, etc. However, the drawbacks were that he often made enemies in the process. (ex: Colombia, Russia, and Japan)
The Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine distorted the original policy statement of 1823. How did it do so? Compare the circumstances and purposes of the two policies
The Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine stated that only America could intervene with Latin America. Only America could intervene in the Latin American countries by resuming their debts with other foreign powers and sometimes even taking charge of their economic programs (the Dominican Republic's tariff program). However, in the Monroe Doctrine, it simply stated that countries were not to intervene or colonize in the Americas. This was a distortion, because America was being a hypocrite by saying that she alone could intervene and do all the things that other countries were not allowed to do.
What were the causes of imperialism?
-competition with other nations>the dawn of the "age of empire"
-farmers and factory owners look beyond American shores as agricultural and industrial production boom
-overseas markets might provide safety valve for labor violence and agrarian unrest
-the "yellow press"
-missionaries>the white man's burden
-social Darwinism>TR and Henry Cabot Lodge
-development of a new steel navy; isthmian canal between Atlantic and Pacific
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