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Normal Conditions

warm air blown by trade winds to Australia, cold water upwells near South America. MI conditions: average snowfall.

El Nino Conditions

weak trade winds, Pacific Ocean warmer overall at the equator, no cold water upwells near South America, and the food train struggles because the cold water brings them nutrients. Drought in Australia.MI conditions: warmer, dryer, winter. ('09)

La Nina

very strong trade winds, warm water near Australia and lots of cold water near South America. MI conditions: colder, snowier winter.


Average, year-to-year conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and clouds in an area.


he climate of a very small or restricted area

Ocean Current

streams of water in oceans that move in regular patterns. (warm-west, cold-east)

Tropical rainy

Temp is always above 18 Celsius. Always hot and gets a lot of rain in the wet season.


Occurs wherever potential evaporation is higher than precipitation. May be hot or cold.

Temperate marine

Average temp. 10 C or above the warmest in the month, between -3 and 18 C in the coldest month.

Temperate Continental

Average temp. 10C or above in the warmest month, -3 or below in the coldest month.


Average temp. below 10 in the warmest month.

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