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49 terms

AP Psych Ch 12 & 13

AP Psych Vocab
STUDY
PLAY
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nerviosa
an eating disorder that involves self-starvation, a distorted body image and low body weight
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Matsters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
industrial-organizational psychology
The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Theory X
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above.
Theory Y
assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
two factor theory
Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
catharsis
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Preconscious
in Freud's theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness
Nonconscious
the level of consciousness devoted to processes completely unavailable to conscious awareness (e.g., fingernails growing)
stage 1 sleep
quick sleep stage with gradual loss of responsiveness to outside, drifting thoughts, and images (the hypnagogic state). EEGs show theta waves.
stage 2 sleep
lasts about 20 minutes; periodic "sleep spindles" or bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity; waken up easily, but definitely asleep; sleep talking can occur at this stage or any other sleep stage
stage 3 sleep
usually about 30 minutes; is transitional and leads to the fourth stage; brains starts to emit delta waves
stage 4 sleep
The deepest stage of NREM sleep, characterized by an EEG pattern of more than 50% delta waves.
adaption-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
Non-REM (NREM) sleep
Sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.
Sleepwalking
a phenomenon primarily occurring in non-REM sleep in which people walk while asleep
Activation-synthesis theory
the theory that dreams result from the brain's attempt to make sense of random neural signals that fire during sleep
Cognitive information processing theory
dreams are the interplay of brain waves and psychological functioning of interpretive parts of the mind
daydreaming
A common variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.
medication
a substance administered for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, relief of a symptom, or prevention of disease
narcotics
a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natural receptor sites for endorphins