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63 terms

India, Africa, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam

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hinduism
-KEY IDEA: Brahman (the spirit) is in all living things
-nothing dies entirely (when living things die, inner self is reincarnated)
-GOAL: to become one with the Brahman (moksha)
-indian and aryan cultures blend during Vedic age
-developed from writings and Sanskrit hymns, collected into vedas
rig veda
over 1000 hymns
key idea of hinduism
Brahman (the spirit) is in all living things
-nothing dies entirely (when living things die, inner self is reincarnated)
brahman
the spirit in all living things in Hinduism
goal of hinduism
to become one with the brahman
karma
there is opportunity to be rewarded for following your dharma
dharma
doing what you are supposed to do
chandragupta maurya
-unites india
-develops bureaucracy, trade, big army
-rules forcefully
ashoka
-grandson of chandragupta
-had an epiphany (that killing was bad)
-spread buddhism through silk road
buddhism
-developed in india in 7th century BCE
-ideas of siddhartha guatama
-GOAL: nirvana= spiritual enlightenment
-borrowed ideas from hinduism (dharma, karma, reincarnation)
-4 NOBLE TRUTHS
4 noble truths
buddhism
1. life = pain and suffering
2. this suffering comes from human desire
3.by putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering
4. humans can end desire by following the eightfold path
nirvana
spiritual enlightenment
who started buddhism?
siddhartha guatama
silk road
-overland trade routes that extended 7000 miles
-China -> India -> Mediterranean Sea
-began in Han dynasty
-goods traded AND cultural ideas shared as well
caste system
-social/economic hierarchy
1.brahmins (priests)
2.kshatriyas (warriors and rulers)
3.vaisyas (skilled traders, merchants)
4.sudras (unskilled workers)
5.pariah (outcasts, untouchables)
the eightfold path
buddhism
1. know the truth
2. say nothing to hurt others
3. practice meditation
4. control your thoughts
5. resist evil
6. free your mind of evil
7. work for the good of others
8. respect life
why does ashore issue an edict?
-encourage morality... particularly among future leaders but also everyone
-apology for slaughter
goal that ashoka wanted to accomplish
-all sects affected (all sects/religions have value)
-religious tolerance
-but still strong and effective leader
gupta dynasty
-chandragupta I establishes control in ganges river valley (chose name to show power)
-usher in golden age for approx 300 yrs
-advance in science, math, art, literature
-sanskrit= official language
-traded using real gold
-allowed areas conquered to maintain local control
-less centralized
-as they expanded, allowed areas to send tribute (gold) back to rulers in exchange for local control
-ends when no successor
kalidasa
-india's shakespeare
-wrote dramatic literature
-focus on rasas (emotions)
kama sutra
showed that women were valued
science and math in india
-aryabhatta (trig)
ayabhatta
-astronomer, mathematician
-says earth= sphere moving around sun
-defined trig
india 600s-900s
-become more decentralized
-warriors from central asia ruled (called rajputs)
-became hindu practicing warrior class
-buddhism and hinduism almost merge
rajputs
warriors from central asia that ruled india
role of women (free)
-kama sutra
-some powerful goddesses
-women have some property rights
role of women (not free)
-men still dominant
-suttee
suttee
-women who love husband would burn w/ him in pyre when he dies
birthplace of islam
arabia
-centers of trade= mecca, medina
-start small and grows bc of islam
mecca
near red sea and west coast of arabia
-center of trade in arabia
-high wealth and status
-elite merchants
-site of ka'ba (religious shrine)
ka'ba
religious shrine in mecca
geography of arabia
-peninsula
-in between arabian and red seas
-some scattered towns
-mostly desert
-inhospitable desert
social life/ clan identity in arabia
-clan=small group of people who stay together
-tribe=larger grouping of clans
-warriors are highly valued
-rivalry between clans were common
marriage and family/gender role in arabia
-before island, women were valued more
-women played economic role (milked goats, weaved clothes, care takers)
-women not able to have more than 1 spouse
-as society became wealthier, women were valued less
trade in arabia
-in the beginning, few towns (small in scale)
-mecca, medina along caravan routes
religion/poets in arabia
-mix of animism (belief in nature) and polytheistic
-cultural enjoyment in stories and poems
holy day in islam
friday
islam
-muhammad born in wealthy, meccan family
-orphaned, cared for by clan
-becomes merchant along caravan route
-@ 40 had a vision:
-believes Allah speaking to him
-begins converting friends and townspeople
-resistance formed
622: goes from mecca -> medina (200 miles)
-muslims battle for mecca
-islam takes hold and spread
5 pillars
1. faith
2. prayer (5x/day toward mecca)
3. alms (help needy/charity)
4. fasting
5. pilgrimage (hadj)
jihad
personal struggle of every muslim to follow the teachings of islam and to resist evil
moors
nomadic people from north africa that invade spain and spread islam
post-muhammad
-dies w/o successor
-1st caliphate: abu bakh, umar, uthman, ali
-islam spreading (mostly militarily)
-umayyads come to power... say that heredity will determine succession
-most muslims accept this (sunnis)
-spread islam to mid east, africa, india, europe
caliphate
-elected leaders of islam
first caliphate
-friends and followers of muhammad
-abu bakh
-umar
-uthman
-ali (related to muhammad)
umayyads
come to power and say that heredity will determine succession
-move capital from mecca -> demascas
sunnis
the muslims that accept the umayyads and that heredity will determine succession
shiites/shi'a
don't accept umayyads
-say that caliphs have to be related to muhammad
post muhammad in mid east
-umayyads falls
-abbasid's
-spread of islam
-golden age of islam
-islam spreads further
-takes land from byzantine/persian empires
-believers of other religions could pay tax
-capital moves from damascas -> baghdad (wealthy, successful center)
post muhammad in europe
-islam spreads to iberian peninsula (spain)
-moors (muslims) take hold
-want to spread into frankish territory
-stopped by charles martel (battle of tour 732)
-tricks moors and wind up winning
post muhammad in india
-before islam, hinduism
-exposed to islam by arab traders in 7th century
-in 8th century, india becomes easternmost part of umayyad caliphate (so they are sunnis)
-continues to expand in 10th and 11th century
1206-1526= delhi sultanate ruled
-5 dynasties of turkish muslims (ruthless invaders)
delhi sultanate
-kept outside invaders (mongols) out, although timur weakened it
-cultural blending of indo-muslim cultures w/ key advancements
geography of africa
-deserts (1/3)
-savannah (2/5)
-rainforest
-had to sustain life where you can
-land hard to farm
-areas are overused-> desertification
-rivers can surge
-trade is difficult
***as a result, THE FOCUS OF LIFE IN AFRICA WILL BE LOCAL RATHER THAN GLOBAL***
deserts in africa
-1/3 of area
-sahara=north
-kalahari=south
-some fertile areas= coasts (N and S)
-sahel= areas that are too dry to farm (dry grassland)
sahel
areas that are too dry to farm (dry grassland)
savannah
-2/3 of continent
-rainy and dry seasons that alternate
oasis
pockets of water in middle of deserts
migration
move from one place to another
characteristics of early african civs
-develop along nile and niger rivers
-bantu speaking (900 diff languages)
-believed in animism and respect of ancestors
-villages organized into clans
-some civs matrilineal rather than matrilineal
-survived via subsistence farming
-stone iron tools
subsistence farming
farming just to eat, not sell
impact of agriculture on african civs
-increase food
-increase population
-increase need for land (increase desertification)
-increase wars/ conflicts
-increase movement south and east from niger river
IMPACT= culture spreads
-increase languages-> lack of communication
axum
ruler adopts christianity (lasting effect) in kush
kush
1000BCE-150CE
-taken over by axum
-trade gold, ivory, slaves
i.o. trade
-massive trading network between and among africa, india, china, SE asia (monsoons)
-made all these areas wealthier
-europe wasn't participating
-lasted until europe takes over