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-KEY IDEA: Brahman (the spirit) is in all living things
-nothing dies entirely (when living things die, inner self is reincarnated)
-GOAL: to become one with the Brahman (moksha)
-indian and aryan cultures blend during Vedic age
-developed from writings and Sanskrit hymns, collected into vedas

rig veda

over 1000 hymns

key idea of hinduism

Brahman (the spirit) is in all living things
-nothing dies entirely (when living things die, inner self is reincarnated)


the spirit in all living things in Hinduism

goal of hinduism

to become one with the brahman


there is opportunity to be rewarded for following your dharma


doing what you are supposed to do

chandragupta maurya

-unites india
-develops bureaucracy, trade, big army
-rules forcefully


-grandson of chandragupta
-had an epiphany (that killing was bad)
-spread buddhism through silk road


-developed in india in 7th century BCE
-ideas of siddhartha guatama
-GOAL: nirvana= spiritual enlightenment
-borrowed ideas from hinduism (dharma, karma, reincarnation)

4 noble truths

1. life = pain and suffering
2. this suffering comes from human desire putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering
4. humans can end desire by following the eightfold path


spiritual enlightenment

who started buddhism?

siddhartha guatama

silk road

-overland trade routes that extended 7000 miles
-China -> India -> Mediterranean Sea
-began in Han dynasty
-goods traded AND cultural ideas shared as well

caste system

-social/economic hierarchy
1.brahmins (priests)
2.kshatriyas (warriors and rulers)
3.vaisyas (skilled traders, merchants)
4.sudras (unskilled workers)
5.pariah (outcasts, untouchables)

the eightfold path

1. know the truth
2. say nothing to hurt others
3. practice meditation
4. control your thoughts
5. resist evil
6. free your mind of evil
7. work for the good of others
8. respect life

why does ashore issue an edict?

-encourage morality... particularly among future leaders but also everyone
-apology for slaughter

goal that ashoka wanted to accomplish

-all sects affected (all sects/religions have value)
-religious tolerance
-but still strong and effective leader

gupta dynasty

-chandragupta I establishes control in ganges river valley (chose name to show power)
-usher in golden age for approx 300 yrs
-advance in science, math, art, literature
-sanskrit= official language
-traded using real gold
-allowed areas conquered to maintain local control
-less centralized
-as they expanded, allowed areas to send tribute (gold) back to rulers in exchange for local control
-ends when no successor


-india's shakespeare
-wrote dramatic literature
-focus on rasas (emotions)

kama sutra

showed that women were valued

science and math in india

-aryabhatta (trig)


-astronomer, mathematician
-says earth= sphere moving around sun
-defined trig

india 600s-900s

-become more decentralized
-warriors from central asia ruled (called rajputs)
-became hindu practicing warrior class
-buddhism and hinduism almost merge


warriors from central asia that ruled india

role of women (free)

-kama sutra
-some powerful goddesses
-women have some property rights

role of women (not free)

-men still dominant


-women who love husband would burn w/ him in pyre when he dies

birthplace of islam

-centers of trade= mecca, medina
-start small and grows bc of islam


near red sea and west coast of arabia
-center of trade in arabia
-high wealth and status
-elite merchants
-site of ka'ba (religious shrine)


religious shrine in mecca

geography of arabia

-in between arabian and red seas
-some scattered towns
-mostly desert
-inhospitable desert

social life/ clan identity in arabia

-clan=small group of people who stay together
-tribe=larger grouping of clans
-warriors are highly valued
-rivalry between clans were common

marriage and family/gender role in arabia

-before island, women were valued more
-women played economic role (milked goats, weaved clothes, care takers)
-women not able to have more than 1 spouse
-as society became wealthier, women were valued less

trade in arabia

-in the beginning, few towns (small in scale)
-mecca, medina along caravan routes

religion/poets in arabia

-mix of animism (belief in nature) and polytheistic
-cultural enjoyment in stories and poems

holy day in islam



-muhammad born in wealthy, meccan family
-orphaned, cared for by clan
-becomes merchant along caravan route
-@ 40 had a vision:
-believes Allah speaking to him
-begins converting friends and townspeople
-resistance formed
622: goes from mecca -> medina (200 miles)
-muslims battle for mecca
-islam takes hold and spread

5 pillars

1. faith
2. prayer (5x/day toward mecca)
3. alms (help needy/charity)
4. fasting
5. pilgrimage (hadj)


personal struggle of every muslim to follow the teachings of islam and to resist evil


nomadic people from north africa that invade spain and spread islam


-dies w/o successor
-1st caliphate: abu bakh, umar, uthman, ali
-islam spreading (mostly militarily)
-umayyads come to power... say that heredity will determine succession
-most muslims accept this (sunnis)
-spread islam to mid east, africa, india, europe


-elected leaders of islam

first caliphate

-friends and followers of muhammad
-abu bakh
-ali (related to muhammad)


come to power and say that heredity will determine succession
-move capital from mecca -> demascas


the muslims that accept the umayyads and that heredity will determine succession


don't accept umayyads
-say that caliphs have to be related to muhammad

post muhammad in mid east

-umayyads falls
-spread of islam
-golden age of islam
-islam spreads further
-takes land from byzantine/persian empires
-believers of other religions could pay tax
-capital moves from damascas -> baghdad (wealthy, successful center)

post muhammad in europe

-islam spreads to iberian peninsula (spain)
-moors (muslims) take hold
-want to spread into frankish territory
-stopped by charles martel (battle of tour 732)
-tricks moors and wind up winning

post muhammad in india

-before islam, hinduism
-exposed to islam by arab traders in 7th century
-in 8th century, india becomes easternmost part of umayyad caliphate (so they are sunnis)
-continues to expand in 10th and 11th century
1206-1526= delhi sultanate ruled
-5 dynasties of turkish muslims (ruthless invaders)

delhi sultanate

-kept outside invaders (mongols) out, although timur weakened it
-cultural blending of indo-muslim cultures w/ key advancements

geography of africa

-deserts (1/3)
-savannah (2/5)
-had to sustain life where you can
-land hard to farm
-areas are overused-> desertification
-rivers can surge
-trade is difficult

deserts in africa

-1/3 of area
-some fertile areas= coasts (N and S)
-sahel= areas that are too dry to farm (dry grassland)


areas that are too dry to farm (dry grassland)


-2/3 of continent
-rainy and dry seasons that alternate


pockets of water in middle of deserts


move from one place to another

characteristics of early african civs

-develop along nile and niger rivers
-bantu speaking (900 diff languages)
-believed in animism and respect of ancestors
-villages organized into clans
-some civs matrilineal rather than matrilineal
-survived via subsistence farming
-stone iron tools

subsistence farming

farming just to eat, not sell

impact of agriculture on african civs

-increase food
-increase population
-increase need for land (increase desertification)
-increase wars/ conflicts
-increase movement south and east from niger river
IMPACT= culture spreads
-increase languages-> lack of communication


ruler adopts christianity (lasting effect) in kush


-taken over by axum
-trade gold, ivory, slaves

i.o. trade

-massive trading network between and among africa, india, china, SE asia (monsoons)
-made all these areas wealthier
-europe wasn't participating
-lasted until europe takes over

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