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Terms in this set (24)
The change in an organism's genetic material.
Occurs when there is a change to one or a few nucleotides in a codon.
A type of mutation that occurs when one or amino acids (C, G, U, or A) is deleted from or inserted into a codon, altering the reading frame (pattern of reading triplet codons) in a sequence.
This codon begins the translation of the first amino acid in the protein chain. It is methionine, AUG.
This codon is also called a termination codon. It can be any of three mRNA sequences: UGA, UAG, and UAA. It does not de an amino acid, but rather signal the end of protein synthesis.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Large double stranded polymer inside a cell that carries the genetic information for protein synthesis. Structurally, it looks like a long twisted latter with the sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups forming the sides and complimentary nucleotide bases forming each rung.
Provide the stability of the DNA double helix structure. The two strands of DNA are held together by the __________ bonds that join the complimentary nucleotide base pairs. Two ___________ bonds join the adenosine and thymine base pairs, and those pairs join the cytosine and guanine.
Make up a nucleic acid. They are composed of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
Organic molecules found in nucleic acids. The bases of this in DNA are thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine; specific sequences of these bases code for specific proteins.
One of two building blocks of nucleic acids. Two of these in DNA: adenine and guanine.
Represent the other building blocks of nucleic acids. Two of these in DNA: cytosine and thymine. RNA contains a third called uracil.
5' and 3'
This means "five prime" and "three prime." These numbers indicate the carbon numbers in the DNA's backbone. The 5' carbon has a phosphate group attached to it, and the 3' carbon group has a hydroxyl group. These notations indicate in which direction nucleotides are added to the backbone, going from 5' to 3'.
Part of the chromosome that determines a specific trait of an organism.
Specific form of a gene. For example, a particular gene may control an organism's height - tall or short. This is the form of the gene that specifically determines one of these conditions - that's it, one allele for the height gene determines that the organism will be short. The other allele determines that the organism will be tall. Likewise, an allele of the gene for eye color determines brown eyes.
When an allele masks, or hides other alleles.
When an allele can be expressed only if no other allele for that trait is present.
Pairs of chromosomes of the same length with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci. One of these is inherited from the female parent, the other from the male parent.
Represented by the actual alleles of a trait - for example: Bb.
The actual physical expression of the alleles - for example: brown hair.
Involves determining trait inheritance by working with only one trait at a time.
Involves determining trait inheritance by working with two traits at a time.
Has two alleles for a single trait. Only one gene determines the trait, & the gene has two alleles. One allele is dominant while the other is recessive. The environment does not affect either of the alleles.
Controlled by more than one gene & has many alleles. There is no true dominance or recessiveness among the many alleles. For example, hair color in humans is controlled by more than one gene & many alleles.
Some alleles may be affected by environmental conditions. For example, the fur of arctic rabbits turns white in cold temperatures & brown in warm temperatures.
X-Linked Trait (Sex-Linked Trait)
Found only on the X chromosome.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Scientific Evidence of Common Ancestry
Natural Selection and Adaptation
Interactions Among Plants and Animal Systems
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