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Which sleep stage is characterized primarily by dreaming and rapid brain waves?

REM sleep

Which of the following is a gross motor skill?


What occurs when infants change from sucking their mother's breast to sucking a pacifier


Breast-feeding reduces the risk of


What accounts for the ethnic variations in the development of gross motor skills

cultural patterns

At birth, the average infant weighs:

7½ pounds

What occurs in the brain during the pruning process?

Unused neurons and misconnected dendrites shrink and die

Piaget's cognitive development period that begins at birth and ends around age 2 is called:

sensorimotor intelligence.

Which of the following is a reflex that is critical for survival?

(p. 94)

Stage four of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by

new adaptation and anticipation. (p. 107)

When an apparently healthy 2-month-old baby dies in his or her sleep, he or she most likely died of

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Shaken baby syndrome

is seen in one in five children hospitalized for maltreatment

Behaviorists believe that a mother who _________ will stimulate her child's communication skills.

gives reinforcement

A hypervigilant or emotionally flat response to stress later in life is a potential consequence of _______ in infancy

an overabundance of stress hormones (p. 91)

The typical order of spoken language development is:

reflexive, cooing, babbling, simple words.

By 24 months, most children are about ____ percent of their adult height.


According to your text, early sensation appears to be organized toward which two goals?

social interaction and comfort

One-year-old Danielle watches her sister talk on a cell phone. The next day Danielle holds the cell phone to her ear as if she is using the phone. Danielle is demonstrating:

deferred imitation.

The DTaP vaccine protects against:

diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis.

At birth, the brain has ____________________.

billions of neurons

Over the first few months of infancy, the amount of time spent in REM (dreaming) sleep:


Typical 2-year-olds are already:

50 percent their adult height

The term used to describe an infant's thought process that relies on senses and motor skills is:

sensorimotor intelligence

Which of the following makes sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) less likely?


The average newborn's length is approximately

20 inches.
(p. 86)

Isaiah is 7 months old. His sister takes a toy and hides it behind her back. Isaiah cries and does not look for the toy. It is likely that he has not yet acquired:

object permanence.

Child-directed speech is

preferred by newborns over other sounds.
also called motherese.
high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive speech used by adults to infants

Which of the following senses is the least developed at birth


According to Chomsky's theory of language development, which factor predicts communication?

an innate ability

Tertiary circular reactions are characterized by:

active exploration and experimentation (p. 106, Table 3.5)

Which of the following reflexes is seen when an infant is startled?


A formula-fed baby is more likely to ________ than a breast-fed baby

have more allergies

Large body movements, such as walking and jumping, are

gross motor skills

Which term is used to describe the process in which unused neurons die?


Which of the following may result in brain damage, coma, or death?

shaken baby syndrome

Which of the following statements about neurons is true

Most neurons are created before birth

Which term describes what occurs when the brain notices and processes a sensation?


Five-year-old Marisol becomes furious after minor incidents with her peers. Her inability to deal with normal stress may be related to the _______ of stress hormones in her brain during infancy.


The information-processing theory compares human thinking to:

computer functioning

The MMR vaccine protects against:

measles, mumps, and rubella

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