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103 terms

burger quiz1-4

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Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else by mimicking the action are called:
mirror neurons
In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group.
experimental
According to the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of David's family on his development is part of his
microsystem
Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon
American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents.
The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances
historical
Han's parents immigrated to the United States from China. While they focused strongly on passing their cultural traditions down to their son, they were distressed to observe Han incorporating some American traditions into their Chinese heritage. It might be helpful for Han's parents to understand that Han:
will experience his culture somewhat differently than his parents do because of having moved to the United States.
According to psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by:
our unconscious motives and drives
If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of:
longitudinal research.
According to Erik Erikson, children in the industry vs. inferiority stage try to
master new skills.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development is called
preoperational.
When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process:
accommodation.
In which of the following disorders is it possible to tell whether or not someone is a carrier?
Tay-Sachs disease
Tay-Sachs disease
from nine weeks after conception until birth
If a person inherits genes that predisposes him or her to alcoholism but is raised in Saudi Arabia, how is that person likely to behave in terms of alcohol consumption
Since alcohol is a cultural taboo in Saudi Arabia, the person will not likely become alcoholic.
What is the most common X linked condition?
color blindness
An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its:
genotype.
Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are:
Answer
produced by many genes
A reproductive cell (i.e., a sperm or ovum) is called a:
gamete
In genetic terms, if you are a "carrier" it means you have:
recessive genes in your genotype that are not expressed.
Genetic disorders that are dominant are:
always expressed.
What is the natural sex ratio at conception?
approximately 50/50
In a first birth, the average length of active labor is:
about 12 hours.
Any birth that occurs 35 or fewer weeks after conception is considered to be:
preterm
The process that is involved when a sensory system first detects an external stimulus is
sensation.
Sam is able to grab objects but he sometimes closes his hand too early or too late. Sam is probably about:
4 months old
The average newborn triples his weight by
1 year.
According to Jean Piaget, the two elements of adaptation are:
assimilation and accommodation
The principle of object permanence is demonstrated by an infant's:
searching for a toy that has fallen from sight.
Newborns prefer
speech over most other sounds
The reflex that allows newborns to grip so tightly is the
Palmar grasping reflex.
According to Piaget, during the sensorimotor stage, infants' main task is to
use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B. F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to his:
parents' talking to him frequently.
The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature is the:
prefrontal cortex
The sense that is the least developed at birth is:
vision.
As infants acquire language, they say more ______ than any other parts of speech.
nouns
The study of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand
how and why people change and stay the same across the lifespan
An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:
An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:
Within the ecological-systems approach, the customs of the society, as well as the economic and political philosophies of the nation, are all a part of the:
macrosystem
A major contextual influence on development is:
Social Class
You and your high school classmates are part of the same
Cohort
According to Freud's theory, development in the first six years occurs in three
psychosexual stages
In Erikson's psychosocial theory, resolutions to developmental crises depend on the interaction between the individual and:
the social environment
Who helped initiate behaviorism by saying, "Let us limit ourselves to the things that can be observed . . ."?
John B. Watson
In classical conditioning, an organism learns
to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one
Identify an example of classical conditioning
feeling happy at the smell of baking cookies
A dog learns to "shake paws" on command because it has been given dog biscuits for doing so. This is an example of:
operant conditioning
After watching a new Jackie Chan movie, Rob tries some of the karate moves he saw in the film. Social learning theorists would say that ______ has occurred.
modeling
A major pioneer in cognitive theory was
Piaget
Molecules of DNA are referred to as:
Chromosomes
Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes
23 pairs
The sperm and the ovum are
gametes
When two human reproductive cells combine at the moment of conception, the result is a:
. zygote
A person's sex is determined by:
the 23rd pair of chromosomes
An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will:
be female
An allele is:
a normal vairation of a particular gene
Tony denied any involvement with Belinda but with a single drop of his blood, his paternity for her child was confirmed. How?
. through his DNA
The period of the fetus lasts:
the nine weeks after conception until birth
The placenta
surrounds and protects the developing organism
Approximately what percentage of zygotes successfully become implanted
40 percent
The head begins to take shape in the ______ week after conception
fourth
With excellent medical care, a fetus can survive if it is born as early as:
22 weeeks after conception
Teratology refers to:
the study of birth defects
Maria used a prescription medicine for two weeks while she was pregnant. The potential damage:
depends partly on when during her pregnancy she took the medicine
The average newborn doubles her birthweight in
. four months
Children reach half their adult height by age:
2 years
The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:
head-sparing
typical newborn will sleep
17 hours or more a day.
Jake sleeps in his parent's bed and awakens often during the night. According to recent research, Jake:
sleeps just as much as an infant who sleeps alone
Michael was subjected to much stress as an infant due to repeated episodes of family violence. As an adult, he is incapable of normal stress responses because stress hormones in his brain were:
overproduced.
Trent is an infant who lacks many of the new toys and videos that promote brain development. He spends much of his day in a playpen with kitchen items for toys, listening to his grandmother sing while his mother works outside the home. Given his situation, Trent's brain development will most likely:
proceed normally due to the self-righting tendency
Jean Piaget was most interested in
studying how children think
When we revamp our old ways of thinking because of new information, Piaget calls this
accommodation.
An example of stage-three behavior is
making noise, looking for a smile, and smiling back
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to
use senses and motor skills to understand the world
The theorist who believed that children learn language when they are reinforced by parental attention was:
F. Skinner
The usual order of the development of spoken language is:
reflexese, booing, babbling, spoken words
An apparent (but not actual) drop between one surface and another is called a(n):
visual cliff
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recent emotional reaction is likely to be
a social smile
The emotion of pride usually appears at what age?
1 1/2 years
When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
separation anxiety
The Western value of independence is clearly exhibited in
Erikson's stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
compliant
Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called
synchrony
Secure attachment (type B) makes a toddler
willing to explore
Josh is 15 months old. His parents are happy in their marriage and financially stable. Most likely, Josh's attachment type will be:
secure
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
social referencing
The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between
40-50 pounds
The body mass index (BMI) is the lowest of the life span at age:
13
Janie just cannot seem to keep from becoming extremely angry when she does not get her way. Her ability to reign in this tendency toward tantrums will get better when her ______ has further matured
prefrontal cortex
Young children who engage in active play much of the day tend to exhibit:
mastery of fine and gross motor skills
Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of two and six ______ intelligence
preoperational
One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:
children can master some tasks with the help of others
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called:
initiative versus guilt
One difference between shame and guilt is that:
guilt come from within the child
From birth to about 6 weeks, newborns signal their needs to caregivers through crying and body movements. According to your text, which stage of attachment is this?
reattachment
The emotion of anger usually appears by the age of
6 months.
When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to
engage in physical play.
In the research performed by Tronick & Weinberg, mothers were instructed to interact normally with their infants' facial expressions, and then on cue to show no emotional reaction at all. This procedure is called the:
still-face technique
Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at:
9 months.
In the Strange Situation, a sign of secure attachment is:
smiling at Mother when she returns to the room
In Erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of:
learning whether the world can be trusted to meet basic needs.
In terms of Erikson's theory, a toddlers' failure to develop self-rule over his/her own actions is most closely identified with
shame and doubt
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
social referencing.