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Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else by mimicking the action are called:

mirror neurons

In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group.


According to the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of David's family on his development is part of his


Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon

American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents.

The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances


Han's parents immigrated to the United States from China. While they focused strongly on passing their cultural traditions down to their son, they were distressed to observe Han incorporating some American traditions into their Chinese heritage. It might be helpful for Han's parents to understand that Han:

will experience his culture somewhat differently than his parents do because of having moved to the United States.

According to psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by:

our unconscious motives and drives

If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of:

longitudinal research.

According to Erik Erikson, children in the industry vs. inferiority stage try to

master new skills.

Piaget's second stage of cognitive development is called


When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process:


In which of the following disorders is it possible to tell whether or not someone is a carrier?

Tay-Sachs disease

Tay-Sachs disease

from nine weeks after conception until birth

If a person inherits genes that predisposes him or her to alcoholism but is raised in Saudi Arabia, how is that person likely to behave in terms of alcohol consumption

Since alcohol is a cultural taboo in Saudi Arabia, the person will not likely become alcoholic.

What is the most common X linked condition?

color blindness

An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its:


Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are:

produced by many genes

A reproductive cell (i.e., a sperm or ovum) is called a:


In genetic terms, if you are a "carrier" it means you have:

recessive genes in your genotype that are not expressed.

Genetic disorders that are dominant are:

always expressed.

What is the natural sex ratio at conception?

approximately 50/50

In a first birth, the average length of active labor is:

about 12 hours.

Any birth that occurs 35 or fewer weeks after conception is considered to be:


The process that is involved when a sensory system first detects an external stimulus is


Sam is able to grab objects but he sometimes closes his hand too early or too late. Sam is probably about:

4 months old

The average newborn triples his weight by

1 year.

According to Jean Piaget, the two elements of adaptation are:

assimilation and accommodation

The principle of object permanence is demonstrated by an infant's:

searching for a toy that has fallen from sight.

Newborns prefer

speech over most other sounds

The reflex that allows newborns to grip so tightly is the

Palmar grasping reflex.

According to Piaget, during the sensorimotor stage, infants' main task is to

use senses and motor skills to understand the world.

By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B. F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to his:

parents' talking to him frequently.

The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature is the:

prefrontal cortex

The sense that is the least developed at birth is:


As infants acquire language, they say more ______ than any other parts of speech.


The study of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand

how and why people change and stay the same across the lifespan

An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:

An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:

Within the ecological-systems approach, the customs of the society, as well as the economic and political philosophies of the nation, are all a part of the:


A major contextual influence on development is:

Social Class

You and your high school classmates are part of the same


According to Freud's theory, development in the first six years occurs in three

psychosexual stages

In Erikson's psychosocial theory, resolutions to developmental crises depend on the interaction between the individual and:

the social environment

Who helped initiate behaviorism by saying, "Let us limit ourselves to the things that can be observed . . ."?

John B. Watson

In classical conditioning, an organism learns

to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one

Identify an example of classical conditioning

feeling happy at the smell of baking cookies

A dog learns to "shake paws" on command because it has been given dog biscuits for doing so. This is an example of:

operant conditioning

After watching a new Jackie Chan movie, Rob tries some of the karate moves he saw in the film. Social learning theorists would say that ______ has occurred.


A major pioneer in cognitive theory was


Molecules of DNA are referred to as:


Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes

23 pairs

The sperm and the ovum are


When two human reproductive cells combine at the moment of conception, the result is a:

. zygote

A person's sex is determined by:

the 23rd pair of chromosomes

An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will:

be female

An allele is:

a normal vairation of a particular gene

Tony denied any involvement with Belinda but with a single drop of his blood, his paternity for her child was confirmed. How?

. through his DNA

The period of the fetus lasts:

the nine weeks after conception until birth

The placenta

surrounds and protects the developing organism

Approximately what percentage of zygotes successfully become implanted

40 percent

The head begins to take shape in the ______ week after conception


With excellent medical care, a fetus can survive if it is born as early as:

22 weeeks after conception

Teratology refers to:

the study of birth defects

Maria used a prescription medicine for two weeks while she was pregnant. The potential damage:

depends partly on when during her pregnancy she took the medicine

The average newborn doubles her birthweight in

. four months

Children reach half their adult height by age:

2 years

The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:


typical newborn will sleep

17 hours or more a day.

Jake sleeps in his parent's bed and awakens often during the night. According to recent research, Jake:

sleeps just as much as an infant who sleeps alone

Michael was subjected to much stress as an infant due to repeated episodes of family violence. As an adult, he is incapable of normal stress responses because stress hormones in his brain were:


Trent is an infant who lacks many of the new toys and videos that promote brain development. He spends much of his day in a playpen with kitchen items for toys, listening to his grandmother sing while his mother works outside the home. Given his situation, Trent's brain development will most likely:

proceed normally due to the self-righting tendency

Jean Piaget was most interested in

studying how children think

When we revamp our old ways of thinking because of new information, Piaget calls this


An example of stage-three behavior is

making noise, looking for a smile, and smiling back

During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to

use senses and motor skills to understand the world

The theorist who believed that children learn language when they are reinforced by parental attention was:

F. Skinner

The usual order of the development of spoken language is:

reflexese, booing, babbling, spoken words

An apparent (but not actual) drop between one surface and another is called a(n):

visual cliff

At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recent emotional reaction is likely to be

a social smile

The emotion of pride usually appears at what age?

1 1/2 years

When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:

separation anxiety

The Western value of independence is clearly exhibited in

Erikson's stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:


Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called


Secure attachment (type B) makes a toddler

willing to explore

Josh is 15 months old. His parents are happy in their marriage and financially stable. Most likely, Josh's attachment type will be:


A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:

social referencing

The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between

40-50 pounds

The body mass index (BMI) is the lowest of the life span at age:


Janie just cannot seem to keep from becoming extremely angry when she does not get her way. Her ability to reign in this tendency toward tantrums will get better when her ______ has further matured

prefrontal cortex

Young children who engage in active play much of the day tend to exhibit:

mastery of fine and gross motor skills

Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of two and six ______ intelligence


One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:

children can master some tasks with the help of others

Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called:

initiative versus guilt

One difference between shame and guilt is that:

guilt come from within the child

From birth to about 6 weeks, newborns signal their needs to caregivers through crying and body movements. According to your text, which stage of attachment is this?


The emotion of anger usually appears by the age of

6 months.

When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to

engage in physical play.

In the research performed by Tronick & Weinberg, mothers were instructed to interact normally with their infants' facial expressions, and then on cue to show no emotional reaction at all. This procedure is called the:

still-face technique

Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at:

9 months.

In the Strange Situation, a sign of secure attachment is:

smiling at Mother when she returns to the room

In Erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of:

learning whether the world can be trusted to meet basic needs.

In terms of Erikson's theory, a toddlers' failure to develop self-rule over his/her own actions is most closely identified with

shame and doubt

A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:

social referencing.

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