148 terms

Computer Analysis 4-6

System Unit
A case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data; variety of shapes and sizes; protects the internal electronic components from damage; all computers and mobile devices have one; contains the processor, video card, sound card, memory, drive bay, and power supply
System board; main circuit board of the system unit; has many components attached to it and built into it; memory chips are installed in memory cards (modules) that go into it
Small piece of semiconducting material, often silicon, which integrated circuits are etched; birthplace of the silicon _____= Texas. Starts as silicon; melts down to purify and form a single unit, then electricity can flow through it purely; Slice the crystal = wafers; wafers must be totally cleaned = process of etching photolithography; wafer full of ______; must be cut once cup up, package it; requires cooling
CPU; interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
Personal computer processor chip
Processor Core
Contains the circuitry necessary to execute instructions
Multi-Core Processor
A chip with 2 or more separate processor cores
Chip with 2 separate processor cores
Chip with 4 separate processor cores; slower clock speed than a single core processor, but increases performance
System Unit
Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU); work together to perform processing operations
Control Unit
Component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer; interprets each instruction and initiates the action
Arithmetic Logic Unit
Performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations; basic calculations, compares one data item with another
Machine Cycle
Fetch, decode, execute, and store
System Clock
Small quartz crystal circuit that controls the timing of all computer operations; 3 ways that determine how fast a computer is = clock speed, memory, word size
Parallel Processing
Uses multiple processors all at once to execute a single task
This only functions on a digital signal; 2 discrete states: on (1, red) and off (0, green)
Binary System
Number system that has 2 digits, 0 and 1, called bits
Binary digit; smallest unit of data; 8 of these = a byte
Provides combination of 0's and 1's to represent 256 characters; this equals 8 bits
Coding System
Patterns of combination of 0's and 1's that represent characters
Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed, data needed by instructions, and the results of information; stores 3 categories of items: the operating system and other software, application programs, and data being processed by application programs and information
Stored Program Concept
Role of memory to store data and programs; each location in memory has an address
Memory Sizes
Kilobyte = 1,000 bytes; Megabyte = 1 million bytes; Gigabyte = 1 billion bytes; Terabyte = 1 trillion bytes
Volatile Memory
Temporary memory; when power is off memory is lost; an example being RAM
Non-Volatile Memory
Permanent memory; examples include ROM, flash memory, and CMOS
Random access memory or main memory; memory chips that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices; amount of this is necessary and depends on the types of software you use
Dynamic RAM
Chips that must be re-energized
Static RAM
Chips that are faster and reliable
Stores data using magnetic charges, not electrical
Memory Module
Chips reside in this, which are held by memory slots
2 types: disk and memory; memory speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data; L1 and L2 are faster because they are part of CPU; L3 is on RAM so slower; RAM is primary memory
Read-only memory; memory chips storing permanent data and instructions; cannot be modified
ROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or information
Flash Memory
Memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor; provides high speeds and consumes little power; uses battery power
Memory Access Time
The amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory; measured in nanoseconds: 1 billionth of a second; affects how fast the computer processes data
Expansion Slot
Socket in the motherboard that can hold an adapter card; connect to expansion buses
Adapter Card
Sometimes called an expansion card; a circuit board that enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals
A device that connects to the system unit and is controlled by the processor in the computer; includes modems, disk drives, printers, and keyboards
Sound Card
Enhances the sound generating capabilities of a personal computer—uses microphone and speakers
Video Card
Converts computer output into a video signal that travels through a cable to the monitor and shows an image on the screen
Memory Cards
Removable flash memory device from a phone, camera, media player
USB Flash Drives
Flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on computer or mobile device
PC Card Modules
Adds memory, communications, multimedia, and security to computers
Point at which a peripheral attaches to system unit
Joins a cable to a port
Universal serial bus; devices that connect to it: mouse, printer, camera, scanner, speakers, etc
USB 2.0
High-speed USB; more advanced and faster
Can connect multiple types of devices: cameras, color printer, digital VCR's, video camera, etc.
Port Replicators
An external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device; it attaches to a mobile computer or device
Allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other
Data Bus
Used to transfer actual data
Address Bus
Used to transfer information about where the data should be in memory
Word Size
The number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time
Types of Expansion Buses
PCI bus/Express bus, USB and FireWire, PC Card bus, Graphics port
Front Side Bus
Part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory
Back Side Bus
Connects the processor to cache
Opening inside the system unit to install additional equipment
Drive Bay
Holds disk drives
Power Supply
Converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power
AC Adapter
External power supply
Any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer
Input Device
Any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions into a computer: keyboard, mouse, etc
Pointing Device
Allows user to control a pointer on the screen
Enhanced Keyboard
12 or more function keys along the top and a set of arrow keys
Goal is to incorporate comfort, efficiency, and safety in the design of the work place
Optical Mouse
Uses devices that emit and sense light to detect the house's movement
Air Mouse
Motion-sensing mouse that allows you to control objects by moving the mouse through the air
Stationary pointing device with a ball on top
Small, flat, rectangular pointing device (Mac)
Pointing Stick
Pressure sensitive pointing device shapes like a pencil eraser
Touch screens that recognize multiple points of contact at the same time
Freestanding computer, usually includes a touch screen (airport self check-in)
Microsoft Surface
30 inch tabletop display that allows one or more people to interact with the screen. Other objects besides fingers can be used as an input device, such as a paintbrush
Touch Sensitive Pads
Input device that enables users to scroll (iPod)
Click Wheel
Rotate the wheel to browse (iPod)
Small metal or plastic device that looks like a pen but uses pressure
Digital Pen
Larger pen, provides more functionality than a stylus. Includes electronic erasers and programmable buttons and is pressure sensitive
Signature Capture Pad
Capture a handwritten signature (mall check out)
Graphics Tablet
Need it to use an pen input on a computer that does not have touch screen; flat, rectangular, plastic board that you write on with the pressure-sensitive pen
Held with both hands (PlayStation, Xbox)
Handheld vertical lever mounted on a base
Motion-Sensing Game Controllers
Allow the user to guide on screen elements by moving a handheld input device (Wii-uses Bluetooth wireless technology)
Most expensive and high quality, stationary digital camera
Portable digital camera, many lenses and attachments, used by photojournalists
Point and Shoot
Affordable, light weight digital camera
The number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device
Picture element; smallest element in an electronic image. Effects the quality of digital photos
Speech Recognition
Computers capability of distinguishing spoken words
Enables users to speak to other users over the internet
Audio Input
The process of entering any sound into the computer; voice input is a part of this
Video Input
The process of capturing full motion images and storing them on a computers storage medium
Digital Video Camera
Records video as digital signals instead of analog signals
Web Cam
Type of digital video camera; video telephone call: both people see each other
A device that can capture data directly from a source document
Optical Scanner
A scanner; a light sensing input device that read printed text/graphics and translates them into a form the computer can process
Flatbed Scanner
Works like a copy machine but goes onto the computer screen
Optical Readers
Uses light source to read then converts them into digital data
Optical Character Recognition
Reading characters from ordinary documents and translating the images into a computer form
Turnaround Document
Document that you return to the company that sent it. (like a bill: you keep part of it and send the other part back)
Optical Mark Recognition
Read hand written marks (scantron tests)
RFID Readers
Uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, animal, person
MICR Readers
Magnetic-ink character recognition; device read text printed with magnetized ink (checks to the bank)
Biometric Input
Authenticating a person's identity by verifying a personal characteristic (fingerprint reader)
Computer, with limiting processing power, that enables users to send data or receive information from a host computer
Data that's been processed into a useful form; 4 types: Text, graphics, audio, and video
Output Device
Any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people, such as printers, speakers, and headphones
Display Device
Visually conveys text, graphics, and video information; for example, a monitor is packaged as a separate peripheral
Information appears in one color
LCD Monitor
Desktop monitor that uses a liquid crystal display to produce images; use a digital signal to produce a price
Liquid Crystal Display
Uses a liquid compound to present information on a display device; contains fluorescent tubes that emit light waves toward the crystals
Plasma Monitor
Uses gas plasma technology; sandwiches a layer of gas between 2 glass plates; richer in color and wider than LCD, expensive
CRT Monitor
Contains a cathode ray tube; large, sealed glass tube; small amount of electromagnetic radiation—health risks
Produces text and graphics on paper; can use a cable or wireless. 2 types of wireless: Bluetooth and infrared
Non-Impact Printer
Puts characters on the paper without actually touching it—spray ink, heat, pressure
Ink-Jet Printer
Sprays tiny drops of liquid
Multi-Function Peripherals
A device that has a printer, scanner, copy machine, fax, all in one; less expensive, but if the device breaks every function is lost
Thermal Printer
Electrical heat pins hit heat-sensitive paper; inexpensive, low quality
Digital Photo Printer
High quality, dye sublimation printer that uses heat to transfer colored dye to coated paper
Mobile Printer
Small, light, battery powered, print while traveling; ink jet or thermal
Sophisticated printers, high quality drawings (blueprints, maps) engineering
Large Format Printer
Ink jet printer, photo realistic quality prints, high cost/performance
Impact Printer
Easily print through many layers, inked ribbon
Dot-Matrix Printer
Produced printed images when tiny wire pins strike inked ribbon
Line Printer
High speed impact that prints an entire line at once
Holds data, instructions, and information for future; home users 320 GB, enterprise 50 PB
Storage Medium
Secondary storage; the physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information. Hard disks, memory cards, USB flash drives, etc.
The number of bytes a storage medium can hold
Storage Device
The computer hardware that records/retrieves items to and from storage media
Hard Disks
Storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information in an airtight, sealed case; capacity, platters, read/write heads, cylinders, sectors and tracks, revs/minute, transfer rate, and access time
Longitudinal Recording
Aligned the magnetic particles horizontally around the surface of the disk
Redundant array of independent disks; a group of 2 or more integrated hard disks, ideal storage
Network attached storage; device is a server connected to a network with the sole purpose of providing storage
External Hard Disk
A separate free standing hard disk that connects with a cable to a port; 4 TB
Removable Hard Disk
Insert and remove from a drive; 750 GB
Pocket Hard Drive
External hard disk that are smaller and contain miniature hard disks
Hard Disk Controllers
A special purpose chip and electronic circuits that control the transfer of data, instructions, and info from a disk; may be a separate adapter card inside a system unit
Hard disk interface; serial advanced technology attachment
Hard disk interface; enhanced integrated drive electronic
Hard disk interface; small computer system interface
Hard disk interface; serial attached SCSI
Flash Memory Storage
Type of non-volatile memory that can be erases electronically and rewritten
Solid State Media
Consists entirely of electronic components
Solid State Drive
Storage device uses flash memory: fast access time and transfer rates, generates less heat and consumes less power, last longer
Cloud Storage
Internet service that provides storage to computer users; Windows Live Sky Drive, YouTube, Facebook
Optical Discs
Type of optical storage media that consists of a flat, round, portable, disc-CD; store software, data, photos, movies, music; read only—not re-writable; track is divided into evenly sized sectors; audio: CD-R
Process of copying audio/video data from a purchased disc and saving it on digital media
Other Types of Storage
Tape, microfilm (large) and microfiche (small), enterprise storage, magnetic stripe cards and smart cards