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PSYCH 101 MODS 23 &28
Terms in this set (22)
the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
the process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors.
frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
learning by observing others.
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
controls language expression--an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--"go car"--using mostly nouns and verbs.
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.
controls language reception--a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
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