World History Chapter 5 Guided Reading, Section Summaries, Main Ideas, Assessments
Terms in this set (51)
Why was sea trade important for the Greeks?
Greece had little natural resources because of its mountainous region, so trade allowed them to get the resources they needed.
How were the Mycenaeans influenced by the Minoans?
The Mycenaeans based the Greek language of the writing of the Minoans and decorated vases with Minoan designs.
How did Homer keep Greek culture alive under the Dorians?
Homer told stories of the Trojan War which was a war that was a large part of Greek folklore.
How did Sparta treat the Messenians?
Sparta conquered them and forced them to be helots of peasants forced to say on the land they worked. The Spartans would take half of the helots' crops every year.
What type of society did Sparta create in response to the revolt?
Sparta dedicated themselves to making Sparta a strong, military based city-state after the revolt.
How did Athenians avoid major political upheavals?
Athenians made reforms over time to slowly change Athens to more of a democracy.
What economic and political reforms did Solon initiate?
Solon outlawed debt slavery, organized citizens based on their wealth, made it so only three social classes could hold political positions, allowed all Athenians to participate in an assembly, and introduced the legal concept that any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers, like a lawsuit.
What steps did Cleisthenes take to create a limited democracy in Athens?
Cleisthenes organized citizens based on where they lived and allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage. He created the Council of 500 which had 500 randomly chosen citizens who proposed laws and counseled the assembly.
What advantage did the Greek soldiers have over the Persians?
The Greek soldiers had strong iron armor, chariots and shields. They had a strong fighting formation called a phalanx with iron spears and shields.
What were the consequences of the Persian Wars?
The Persian Wars caused the Greek city-states to make an alliance that Athens slowly became the leader of. Athens gained control of other city-states and entered its golden age.
What types of government existed in the city-states?
There was a monarchy with one king, aristocracy with a few noble families, oligarchy with a couple powerful nobles, and a democracy which gave power to the people.
Why was Athens not a full democracy?
While it did give lots of government power to citizens, only adult males were citizens and women, slaves, and foreigners had few rights.
What was Sparta's focus as a city-state?
Sparta wanted to have a strong military making it a strong fighting city-state.
How did Pericles strengthen democracy?
Pericles made many public official jobs have salaries, which before only the wealthy could have because they were unpaid. Now, poorer citizens could be elected or randomly chosen to work.
What steps did Pericles take to strengthen the empire and glorify Athens?
Pericles used money to strengthen the Athenian navy to protect Athens using the surrounding waterways. He also took money from the Delian League to beautiful Athens and create art and architecture like the Parthenon.
What themes were common in Greek tragedy?
They commonly had a main character with importance and extraordinary abilities. They had a tragic flaw which lead to their downfall, usually hubris, excessive pride.
What do the themes of Greek comedies suggest about the men and women of Athens?
The ability to criticize their own friends and leaders showed the freedom and openness men and women felt in Athens because of the democracy.
What was Plato's vision of the ideal society?
Plato thought that that it should have three groups and the one with the most intellect from the highest class should be crowned philosopher-king.
What is the philosophic legacy of Aristotle?
Aristotle invented a method for arguing with logic which became a basis for scientific method used today. He also taught Alexander, a famous king.
What was Pericles' three main goals for Athens?
Pericles wanted to strengthen democracy, glorify Athens, and strengthen Athens' empire.
Why was the Parthenon built?
The Parthenon was built to glorify Athens through beautiful architecture and art.
What was the purpose of Greek comedies?
Greek comedies were made to make fun of politicians and respected ideas at the time.
What was the result of the Peloponnesian War?
The Peloponnesian War resulted in the destruction of Athens, causing them to lose their power and wealth.
Who were three important Greek philosophers?
Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato
How did Greek independence end?
Philip II conquered Greece by using a heavy, strong phalanx.
What two kingdoms did Alexander defeat?
Alexander defeated Persia and Egypt.
How did Alexander's power come to an end?
Alexander died from a fever in 323 B.C. at 32 years old.
Give two reasons why Alexandria became a center of Hellenistic culture.
Alexandria was located in the edge of Egypt on the Mediterranean. It was a main site of trade so many people came and went there.
What two inventions did Archimedes make?
Archimedes invented the lever and the pulley.
How were Hellenistic sculptures different from earlier Greek sculptures?
Hellenistic sculptures focused more on normal human beings instead of ideal beauty.
In what ways did Greece's location by the sea and its mountainous land affect its development?
Greece's location near the sea allowed them to trade and travel, but the mountainous land didn't allow for farming so they had little natural resources and eventually had to look for somewhere else to live. Less than 1 million people could live in Greece because of the mountains.
Why were the epics of importance to the Greeks of the Dorian period?
Epics kept the Greek folklore like the story of the Trojan War alive during the Dorian period.
How is Athenian democracy different from modern American democracy?
Athenian democracy only allowed adult males to be citizens, while in America all genders and races can be citizens.
How would you compare the ideals of Spartan and Athenian societies?
Athens was more focused on artistic and intellectual pursuits. Their boys were educated in the arts, math, history, logic, etc. Women and girls however weren't educated and were expected to stay at home and learn from their mothers. In Sparta, young boys automatically went into the military for training, and anything artistic was frowned upon. Women however had more freedom and could take over the estate when their husbands were gone. Girls could join the military and were skilled in running, wrestling, and sports.
How does an aristocracy differ from an oligarchy?
An aristocracy is ruled by nobles based on family and social rank. An oligarchy is a group of citizens based on wealth or ability.
How did tragedy differ from comedy?
Tragedy usually ended in death while comedy was meant to be more funny than sad.
Why would philosophers start questioning traditional beliefs at this particular time in Athenian history?
Philosophers were questioning because democracy caused them to have their empire fail after the Peloponnesian War
What were the battle strategies of Athens and Sparta in the Peloponnesian War?
Athens fought over sea and Sparta fought on land and took Athenians food.
Why do you think some Athenians found the ideas of Socrates so disturbing?
Athenians thought that Socrates was disturbing because he didn't believe in the Greek gods and thought people should worry and question their actions.
How did the Peloponnesian War pave the way for Philip's conquest of Greece?
The Peloponnesian War destroyed Athens, leaving them weak and able to be conquered.
Why did Alexander continue his conquests after Darius was dead?
Alexander continued to carry on his father's dream of conquering Persia.
Was the power struggle that followed Alexander's death inevitable?
Yes, because Alexander did not have a son and people would be fighting over who should take power.
How was Philip II able to conquer Greece?
Philip II conquered Greece by using a strong phalanx at Chaeronea.
What happened to Alexander's empire after his death?
Three generals split it up: Antigonus took Macedonia and Greece, Ptolemy took Egypt, Seleucus took most of the old Persian Empire.
What were some of the main achievements of scientists of the Hellenistic period?
Scientists learned that the Earth orbited around the Sun, and the Sun was extremely large. They also calculated the size of Earth which is extremely close to the actual size.
What was the main concern of the Stoic and Epicurean schools of philosophy?
The main concern was how people lived their lives.
How did trade contribute to cultural diversity in the Hellenistic city of Alexandria?
People would flock to Alexandria for trade, making it a cultural area for the many different types of people there.
Why did the Greeks develop myths?
Greeks developed myths to explain things about the world like the weather.
What were the two most powerful city-states in early Greece?
Athens and Sparta
What was the full extent of Alexander's empire before his death?
It stretched from Greece and Egypt to the Indus River Valley.
What four influences blended to form Hellenistic culture?
The four influences were Greek, Indian, Persian, and Egyptian.
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