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104 terms

pharm 2 final drugs

drugs and their MOA
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Insulin
used in the treatment of DM, can be rapid, intermediate or slow acting, has an anabolic effect on the body, and has a very narrow safety margin
Reguar (crystalline)
Rapid/short acting effect, only insulin which can be given IV
NPH (isophane)
Intermedate acting Insulin which can last up to 24hours
Protamine Zinc (PZI/Vetsulin)
Slow/long acting Insulin
Drug Interactions with Insulin
Diuretics, Hormones, Sympathomimetics, alpha 2 agonists, thyroid agents, phenytoin, phenothiazines
Sulfonylureas
Glipizide, Glyburide, Glimepiride
Oral Hypoglycemics
Stimulate basal insulin secretion by closing K+ Channels in the beta cell membrane and depolarizing the cell
Acarbose
delays the digestion of complex carbs and disaccharides to glucose
Glucagon
Activates adenyly cyclase increasing cAMP which activates cAMP dependent protein kinase and substrate phosphorylation
Glucagon effects
Stimulates the heart,, hepatic glycogenolysis,gluconeogensis and lipolysis, relaxes smooth muscles,
Glucagon
Reversal for B-Blocker overdose
Somatostatin
Inhibits release of insulin glucagon, GH, and GI Hormones
Octreotide acetate
synthetic analog of somatostatin but has a longer DOA
Diazoxide
non diuretic soluble in water; inhibits insulin release from B cells and stimulates release of catecholamines
Glucocorticoids MOA
act Intracellularlly; Bind to GRE in DNA, alter gene expression and protein synthesis
Glucocorticoids Pharm effects
Catabolic EXCEPT at the liver
#1 use of Glucocorticoids
Antiinflammatory by inhibiting the immune system and maintaining micro circulation and reduce capillary membrane permeability, inhibits phospholipase A2, and COX2
Hydrocortisone/Cortisol/Cortizone
Shortest acting glucocorticoids with the lowest level of mineralocorticoid activity, INCREASES APT
Triamicinolone
Intermediate acting Glucocorticoids (24-48hrs)
Flumethasone, Dexamethasone, Betamethasone
Long acting (>48hrs) Glucocorticoids
Acetonide and Pivalate
Duration of action >4 weeks
Desoxycorticosterone
Precursor to aldosterone, under control of ACTH
Desoxycorticosterone (DOCP)/ Percorten
DOC for hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's dz)
Mitotane (o,p-DDD)/ Lisodren
DOC Pituitary dependent Hyperadrenocorticism (PDH)
Trilostane
Inhibits 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (which converts pregnenolone to progesterone)
Selegiline (L-deprenyl)
Inhibits monoamine oxidase B enzyme inhibiting activation of dopamine; treats PDH in dogs
Inhibitory Hormones
Somatostatin, Dopamine
Vasopressin and Oxytocin
made by hypothalamus, released from pituitary as active Hormones
Pituitary Hormone Gylcoproteins
LSH, FSH,TSH
Pituitary Hormone Peptides
ACTH, GH, Prolactin
Gonadotropins
hCG(LH), FSH, eCG (Equine chorionic gonadotropin)
GnRH
Gonadorelin, Deslorelin
#1 Use for eCG
induce ovulation in mares
FSH(eCG)
stim follicular growth in anestrous animals, induction of super ovulation in cattle
FSH with hCG
Induce estrus in prepuberal gilts
GnRH clinical uses
Increases libido in dogs and cats, Diagnoses LH and testosterone def,, Same uses as LH
Androgens and Anabolic steroids
Are Under Schedule III under controlled substances act (CSA), treatment of androgen def (alopecia) in the castrated dog
Androgens
Testosterone esters, Trenbolone, Mibolerone
Trenbolone
used Growth promoters as implants in feedlot cattle
Testosterone
Used in cows to produce a "teaser"
Mibolerone, Testosterone
Suppression of estrus, psuedopregnancy in dogs
Anabolic Steroids
Stanzolol, Boldenone
Stanzolol/ Winstrol V
Anabolic steroid approved in dogs and cats
Boldenone
Anabolic steroid approved in HORSES ONLY
Estrogens
Estradiol esters, DES, Zeranolol
Estradiol esters
Cypionate, propionate, benzoate, valerate
DES
Synthetic non steroidal estrogen used to treat incontinence
Zeranol
Mycotoxin, growth promoter in ruminants, Only drug approved in SHEEP
Estradiol valerate + progestin
Estrus synchronization in cattle
Estrogen uses
Mismatching, Incontinence, dermatitis and vaginitis in spayed small animals, estrus induction, Antagonists to androgens in prostate hypertrophy and tumors and analadenoma
Estrogen
can cause aplastic anemia and leukopenia in small animals
Megaestrol acetate
Progestin approved in *****es
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate
Progestin approved in cats
Altrenogest
Progestin approved in mares (premature labor)
Norgestomet implants (maint dose) AND Norgestomet-estradiol-valerate, Syncro Mate B
Progestins approved lactating and beef cattle
Melengestrol acetate
Progestin approved in cattle
Medroxyrogesterone acetate
Human progestin
#1 Use of Progestins/Progestagen
Contraception/ prevent preg
Progestin growth promoters in cattle
Progeserone-estradiol benzoate, Melengestrol acetate
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Medroxyprogesterone acetate
Behavioral and Urination problems in male cats
Adverse effect of Progestin
SERIOUS repro problems in the *****
PGF2a
dec serum prog, stim uterine contraction, mediates cell death and regression of corpus letuem
Synthetic PGF2a
Cloprosteol, Fenprostalene, Fluprostenol
Synthetic PGF2a approved in mares
Fluprostenol
PGF2a DOC
Expulsion of mummified fetuses and treatment of pyometra (w/ AB)
Atropine
Reduces side effects of of PGF2
Uterine Stimulant Clin uses
Antinidatory, Abortfacient, Ecbolic (Oxytocin)
Prolactin Inhibitors (Ergoline Derivatives)
Bromocriptine, Cabergoline
Prolactin Inhibitors (Ergoline Derivatives) MOA
Dopamine agonist and inhibit prolactin
tx of psuedopreg in the *****
NONE, Water deprivation/diuretics, Androgens/estrogens, Dopamine agonist, NO OHE
Abortion 7-150 days gestation (cattle)
PGF2a / analog
Abortion 5-8 mo gestation (cattle)
PGF2a AND dex (long acting gluccocorticoid)
Abortion Last month of preg (cattle)
PGF2a OR dex (long acting gluccocorticoid)
DOC for induction of parturition in cattle
Glucocorticoids, PGF2a
DOC for induction of parturition in the Mare
Oxytocin-open cervix, DES-closed cervix
DOC for induction of parturition in the Sow
PGF2a followed by oxytocin
DOC for induction of parturition in Small Animals
Oxytocin
Tocolytics
inhibit uterine contraction
Tocolytic drugs
B2 agonist, Magnesium sulfate, Inhalation anesthetics
Treatment of Agalactia
Dopamine agonists (phenothiazines, metoclopramide, domperidone)
Treatment of BPH in dogs
Castrations, Megaestrol acetate. FINNASTERIDE, GnRH ant, and Lg doses of GnRH agonist
Chemical Castration in dogs (Injected into the testicles)
Zinc/Calcium gluconate neutralized with arginine
Chemical ejaculation in Stallions
Imipramine(TCA), Xylazine (A-2 ag), PGF2a
Somatatropin (GH)
Human, bovine, porcine somatotropins
Treatment of Hypocalcemia
Parenteral, oral, and dietarty ca2+, Vit D
Causes of Hypercalcemia
Malignant tumors, Hypoadrenocorticism, Chronic Renal failure, Primary hyperparathyroidism, Vit D intox
Treatment of hypercalcemia
Normal saline or Furosemide (with K Supplementation), Glucocorticoids
Treatment of Hypothyroidism in dogs
Levothyroxine (T4), Liothronine (T3)
DOC for Hypothroidism in all spp.
Levothyroxine (T4)
Treatment of Myxyedema Coma in dogs
L-thyroxine sodium (inj), Warming of the animal, Artificial respiration
Thioureylenes
Methimazole, Propylthiouracil
DOC for HYPERthyroidism in cats
Methimazole
Propylthiouracil
inhibits conversion of T4 to T3
Iodides
Lugol's solution, Potassium Iodide
Closure of esophageal groove
Milk, Copper Sulfate, Sodium bicarb
Rumen Bloat
Poloxalene, docusate sodium, vegetable oil, mineral oil
Rumen Antony
Cholinergics, Bitters, Magnesium Hydroxide
Cholinergics for Rumen Antony
Bethanechol, Neostigmine
Bitters
Ginger, capsicum, methyl salicylate,
Magnesium Hydroxide
Antacid, laxative and adsorbent
Rumen Acidosis
Oral antacids, sodium bicarb, fluid therapy, glucorticoids, Thiamine/brewers yeast
Urea Poisoning
Acetic acid or vinegar (5%) followed by lg amount of cold water
Bovine Ketosis
Imbalance btw feed intake and energy demand for milk= neg. energy balanace
Treatment of Bovine Ketosis
Glucose 50%IV, Fructose and sorbitol, Parenteral glucocorticoids, Insulin + Glucortidoids, glucose precursors