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drugs and their MOA


used in the treatment of DM, can be rapid, intermediate or slow acting, has an anabolic effect on the body, and has a very narrow safety margin

Reguar (crystalline)

Rapid/short acting effect, only insulin which can be given IV

NPH (isophane)

Intermedate acting Insulin which can last up to 24hours

Protamine Zinc (PZI/Vetsulin)

Slow/long acting Insulin

Drug Interactions with Insulin

Diuretics, Hormones, Sympathomimetics, alpha 2 agonists, thyroid agents, phenytoin, phenothiazines


Glipizide, Glyburide, Glimepiride

Oral Hypoglycemics

Stimulate basal insulin secretion by closing K+ Channels in the beta cell membrane and depolarizing the cell


delays the digestion of complex carbs and disaccharides to glucose


Activates adenyly cyclase increasing cAMP which activates cAMP dependent protein kinase and substrate phosphorylation

Glucagon effects

Stimulates the heart,, hepatic glycogenolysis,gluconeogensis and lipolysis, relaxes smooth muscles,


Reversal for B-Blocker overdose


Inhibits release of insulin glucagon, GH, and GI Hormones

Octreotide acetate

synthetic analog of somatostatin but has a longer DOA


non diuretic soluble in water; inhibits insulin release from B cells and stimulates release of catecholamines

Glucocorticoids MOA

act Intracellularlly; Bind to GRE in DNA, alter gene expression and protein synthesis

Glucocorticoids Pharm effects

Catabolic EXCEPT at the liver

#1 use of Glucocorticoids

Antiinflammatory by inhibiting the immune system and maintaining micro circulation and reduce capillary membrane permeability, inhibits phospholipase A2, and COX2


Shortest acting glucocorticoids with the lowest level of mineralocorticoid activity, INCREASES APT


Intermediate acting Glucocorticoids (24-48hrs)

Flumethasone, Dexamethasone, Betamethasone

Long acting (>48hrs) Glucocorticoids

Acetonide and Pivalate

Duration of action >4 weeks


Precursor to aldosterone, under control of ACTH

Desoxycorticosterone (DOCP)/ Percorten

DOC for hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's dz)

Mitotane (o,p-DDD)/ Lisodren

DOC Pituitary dependent Hyperadrenocorticism (PDH)


Inhibits 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (which converts pregnenolone to progesterone)

Selegiline (L-deprenyl)

Inhibits monoamine oxidase B enzyme inhibiting activation of dopamine; treats PDH in dogs

Inhibitory Hormones

Somatostatin, Dopamine

Vasopressin and Oxytocin

made by hypothalamus, released from pituitary as active Hormones

Pituitary Hormone Gylcoproteins


Pituitary Hormone Peptides

ACTH, GH, Prolactin


hCG(LH), FSH, eCG (Equine chorionic gonadotropin)


Gonadorelin, Deslorelin

#1 Use for eCG

induce ovulation in mares


stim follicular growth in anestrous animals, induction of super ovulation in cattle

FSH with hCG

Induce estrus in prepuberal gilts

GnRH clinical uses

Increases libido in dogs and cats, Diagnoses LH and testosterone def,, Same uses as LH

Androgens and Anabolic steroids

Are Under Schedule III under controlled substances act (CSA), treatment of androgen def (alopecia) in the castrated dog


Testosterone esters, Trenbolone, Mibolerone


used Growth promoters as implants in feedlot cattle


Used in cows to produce a "teaser"

Mibolerone, Testosterone

Suppression of estrus, psuedopregnancy in dogs

Anabolic Steroids

Stanzolol, Boldenone

Stanzolol/ Winstrol V

Anabolic steroid approved in dogs and cats


Anabolic steroid approved in HORSES ONLY


Estradiol esters, DES, Zeranolol

Estradiol esters

Cypionate, propionate, benzoate, valerate


Synthetic non steroidal estrogen used to treat incontinence


Mycotoxin, growth promoter in ruminants, Only drug approved in SHEEP

Estradiol valerate + progestin

Estrus synchronization in cattle

Estrogen uses

Mismatching, Incontinence, dermatitis and vaginitis in spayed small animals, estrus induction, Antagonists to androgens in prostate hypertrophy and tumors and analadenoma


can cause aplastic anemia and leukopenia in small animals

Megaestrol acetate

Progestin approved in *****es

Hydroxyprogesterone caproate

Progestin approved in cats


Progestin approved in mares (premature labor)

Norgestomet implants (maint dose) AND Norgestomet-estradiol-valerate, Syncro Mate B

Progestins approved lactating and beef cattle

Melengestrol acetate

Progestin approved in cattle

Medroxyrogesterone acetate

Human progestin

#1 Use of Progestins/Progestagen

Contraception/ prevent preg

Progestin growth promoters in cattle

Progeserone-estradiol benzoate, Melengestrol acetate

Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Behavioral and Urination problems in male cats

Adverse effect of Progestin

SERIOUS repro problems in the *****


dec serum prog, stim uterine contraction, mediates cell death and regression of corpus letuem

Synthetic PGF2a

Cloprosteol, Fenprostalene, Fluprostenol

Synthetic PGF2a approved in mares



Expulsion of mummified fetuses and treatment of pyometra (w/ AB)


Reduces side effects of of PGF2

Uterine Stimulant Clin uses

Antinidatory, Abortfacient, Ecbolic (Oxytocin)

Prolactin Inhibitors (Ergoline Derivatives)

Bromocriptine, Cabergoline

Prolactin Inhibitors (Ergoline Derivatives) MOA

Dopamine agonist and inhibit prolactin

tx of psuedopreg in the *****

NONE, Water deprivation/diuretics, Androgens/estrogens, Dopamine agonist, NO OHE

Abortion 7-150 days gestation (cattle)

PGF2a / analog

Abortion 5-8 mo gestation (cattle)

PGF2a AND dex (long acting gluccocorticoid)

Abortion Last month of preg (cattle)

PGF2a OR dex (long acting gluccocorticoid)

DOC for induction of parturition in cattle

Glucocorticoids, PGF2a

DOC for induction of parturition in the Mare

Oxytocin-open cervix, DES-closed cervix

DOC for induction of parturition in the Sow

PGF2a followed by oxytocin

DOC for induction of parturition in Small Animals



inhibit uterine contraction

Tocolytic drugs

B2 agonist, Magnesium sulfate, Inhalation anesthetics

Treatment of Agalactia

Dopamine agonists (phenothiazines, metoclopramide, domperidone)

Treatment of BPH in dogs

Castrations, Megaestrol acetate. FINNASTERIDE, GnRH ant, and Lg doses of GnRH agonist

Chemical Castration in dogs (Injected into the testicles)

Zinc/Calcium gluconate neutralized with arginine

Chemical ejaculation in Stallions

Imipramine(TCA), Xylazine (A-2 ag), PGF2a

Somatatropin (GH)

Human, bovine, porcine somatotropins

Treatment of Hypocalcemia

Parenteral, oral, and dietarty ca2+, Vit D

Causes of Hypercalcemia

Malignant tumors, Hypoadrenocorticism, Chronic Renal failure, Primary hyperparathyroidism, Vit D intox

Treatment of hypercalcemia

Normal saline or Furosemide (with K Supplementation), Glucocorticoids

Treatment of Hypothyroidism in dogs

Levothyroxine (T4), Liothronine (T3)

DOC for Hypothroidism in all spp.

Levothyroxine (T4)

Treatment of Myxyedema Coma in dogs

L-thyroxine sodium (inj), Warming of the animal, Artificial respiration


Methimazole, Propylthiouracil

DOC for HYPERthyroidism in cats



inhibits conversion of T4 to T3


Lugol's solution, Potassium Iodide

Closure of esophageal groove

Milk, Copper Sulfate, Sodium bicarb

Rumen Bloat

Poloxalene, docusate sodium, vegetable oil, mineral oil

Rumen Antony

Cholinergics, Bitters, Magnesium Hydroxide

Cholinergics for Rumen Antony

Bethanechol, Neostigmine


Ginger, capsicum, methyl salicylate,

Magnesium Hydroxide

Antacid, laxative and adsorbent

Rumen Acidosis

Oral antacids, sodium bicarb, fluid therapy, glucorticoids, Thiamine/brewers yeast

Urea Poisoning

Acetic acid or vinegar (5%) followed by lg amount of cold water

Bovine Ketosis

Imbalance btw feed intake and energy demand for milk= neg. energy balanace

Treatment of Bovine Ketosis

Glucose 50%IV, Fructose and sorbitol, Parenteral glucocorticoids, Insulin + Glucortidoids, glucose precursors

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