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Psychology Midterm Riney/Kline

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What is the definition of psychology?
The science of human behavior and and mental processes.
What does "APA" stand for?
American Psychological Association
There are how many APA divisions?
54
What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist?
Psychiatrists go to medical schools; Psychologists recieve graduate training in psychology. Psychiatrists also are able to prescribe medicine, while many psychologists cannot.
Who was Timothy Treadwell?
An enviromentalist and documentary film maker who went to live with the grizzly bears of Katamai National Park. He was eventually killed and partially eaten by the bears which he attempted to live with.
Who was Jane Goodall?
A British primatologist who is considered by many to be the world's leading expert on chimpanzees.She lived with wild chimpanzees for 45 years in Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania.
Who is Sigmund Freud?
He studies dreams and what they mean.
Who is Ivan Pavlov?
Learning occurs through classic conditioning; he studies dogs and their salivating.
Who is Alfred Binet?
He invented the 1st modern intelligence test in 1905
Explain Stanley Milgram's obedience experiment.
He tricked an individual into believing they were shocking a stranger in a separate room while being encouraged to continue by a fake "expert".
Define neuroscience.
The study of the brain and neurosystem.
Describe what happened to Phineas Gage.
He was a railroad worker whose face was pierce by a railroad spike; It destroyed most of the left side of his brain, which dramatically effected his personality and behavior.
Describe what happened to The Colorado construction worker.
He accidentally shot himself with a nail in the face. The nail was discovered by his dentist after he thought it was a tooth ache.
Describe what happened to Gabrielle Giffords.
She was a congresswoman who was shot outside a grocery store by a mentally unstable man; She survived, and must relearn how to properly speak.
Define Synapse.
The Space between two neurons.
Define Neurotransmitters.
Chemicals released through the Synapse that travel from neuron to neuron.
Define Neural plasticity.
The brain can be physically & chemically changed by experience.
There are roughly _______ neurons (nerve cells) throughout the body.
100 billion.
Define Acetylcholine (ACH).
It is the main contributor to Alzheimer's disease.
Define Dopamine.
The neurotransmitter which has been linked to Parkinson's disease.
Define Serotonin.
Mood regulation, depression; sets the emotional tone.
Define norepinephrine.
Linked to bipolar disorder.
Define endorphins.
Inhibit pain messages, runners' high
The Central Nervous system controls what 3 things?
The Brain, the spinal cord, and the left-right rain hemispheres.
What is the difference between the right and left hemispheres of the brain?
The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, while the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body.
What is the Corpus Callosum?
The thick band between the 2 hemispheres.
Give three examples of tools/equipment/machinery used to study the brain.
CAT, MRI, PET.
Define Behavior Genetics.
The study between heredity and behavior.
What does the Central Core of the brain do?
Affects our most basic behaviors
Define the Limbic System.
It relates to emotions and learning.
Define the Central Cortex.
It controls our most complex behaviors.
Define Broca's Aphasia.
An impairment of speech in which speech output is severely reduced; A patient may be limited in writing.
Define sensation.
the basic experience of stimulation of the body's 5 senses.
Define perception.
Creating meaningful patterns from abstract, raw sensory information.
What is the difference between Sensation and perception?
Sensation is the result of your body sensing something, while perception is how you view your world, what you see and not see, what you see that isn't there.
Define Adaptation.
the automatic adjustment to our senses to the intensity incoming stimuli.
What is an example of adaptation?
Dilation of the eye.
Define subliminal perception.
certain events in the real world occur without conscious recognition.
What does "ESP" stand for?
Extrasensory Perception.
Define Clairvoyance.
awareness of an unknown object or event.
Define telepathy.
knowledge of someone else's thoughts/feelings
Define Precognition.
foreknowledge of future events.
What is optic nerve exit where there are no cells?
The Blind Spot
What is the area in the eyes where the cones and rods are located?
The retina
How many rods are there in the eye?
120 million
How many cones are there in the eye?
8 million.
Define dark adaptation.
The process in which the rods and cones become MORE sensitive in darkness.
Define light adaptation.
The process in which the rods and cones become LESS sensitive in bright light.
Define visual acuity.
The ability to distinguish fine details.
What is prosopagnosis?
The inability to recognize faces, but the ability to recognize emotion on faces.
What is another name for prosopagnosis?
Face Blindess.
What is Dyslexia?
A reading disability that occurs when the brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols.
What is color blindness?
The partial and complete inability to perceive hues.
What is Tinnitus?
A hearing disorder which 1% of the population suffers from.
What is Anosmia?
The loss of the sense of smell.
What is phantom limb phenomenon?
The phenomenon that ambutees may suffer from; pain in a limb that has been ambutated.
What is vertigo?
The constant feeling of dizziness.
Define amplitude?
Loudness.
What is the threshold for potential ear damage?
85 decibels.
What is the pain threshold?
130 decibels.
What are the 2 systems of smell?
1) odor detection 2) communication.
How much more powerful is smell than taste?
10,000 times.
List the 5 main tastes.
Salty, Sweet, sour, bitter, umami.
Roughly how many taste buds do we have?
10,000
What is taste aversion?
A condition where the mind builds a resistance to a certain food, commonly due to a bad experience with food.
Which is the largest organ?
Skin (Touch)
Which is the most complex sense?
Pain
What are Placebos?
a type of treatment used to decieve the recipient.
Give four reasons why pain is felt differently for everyone.
Everyone's Pain threshold is different, everyone's pain tolerance is different, everyone's beliefs about pain is different, and there is a big variance between pain threshold and pain tolerance.
List 3 examples of alternative medicine to treating pain.
Acupuncture, Placebo effect, and hypnosis.
List 5 ways to treat motion sickness.
Use the front seat of the car/look at faraway objects, Don't read while driving, Don't sit backwards in the car, Open car window, Medication (last resort)
Define deja vu.
the illusion of remembering scenes and events when experienced for the first time.
Define lucid dreams.
A rare occurence when you realize you are in a dream and are able to control everything that happens in that dream.
Define fan violence.
Violence which is carried out by fans of a certain team or organization; most commonly occurs in european soccer.
List the altered states of consciousness.
Sleep, Hypnosis, Dreaming, Flow, Meditation, Daydreaming, Sensory deprivation.
List three sleep disorders.
Insomnia, Apnea, Narcolepsy
List the stages of sleep.
Twilight, Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, Stage 4, REM Sleep
What are the three types of states of consciousness.
Waking consciousness, Altered states of consciousness, Drug-altered states of consciousness
Name the Prisoner of War who was captured by Iraq and credits daydreaming with his survival.
Roy Hallums
What are longitudinal studies?
This observational research technique involves studying the same group at different times.
What are cross-sectional studies?
This type of study studies different groups at the same time.
List the 5 types of research methods.
Surveys, Case-Studies, Correlational research, experimental research, Naturalistic observation.