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Chapter 19: Drifting Toward Disunion

1854-1861
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Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
Hinton R. Helper
Wrote The Impending Crisis, a book about slavery. He said the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. He was captured and killed by Southerners
John Brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
Charles Sumner
gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.
John C. Freemont
led groups into southwestern Mexico to claim California as an independent nation
Dred Scott
American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the missouri Compromise
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
John C. Beckenridge
Buchanan's vice president, nominated for president by breakaway southern Democrats in 1860.
John Bell
Tennessee politician and Plantation owner, nominated for president in 1860 by the United States Constitutional Union Party (Whig's) but lost to Lincoln and the Republicans.
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
John Crittendon
Attempted to recreate the Missouri Compromise as a Constitutional amendment in 1860, sadly he is unable to broker a compromise between north and south on the eve of war
self-determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
southern nationalism
The idea that the south would develop into its own country like, its how they became the confederates
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
The Impending Crisis of the South
Trouble-brewing book written in 1857 by Hinton R. Helper, attempting to prove that slavery hurt non-slaveholding whites the most
New England Immigrant Aid Society
1854 was created to pay antislave settlers to go into Kansas, so when the state voted on whether or not to allow slavery the vote would be on the antislave side.
Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
American or Know-Nothing Party
opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Harpers Ferry Raid
John Brown plans to start a slave uprising, so he steals weapons at Harpers Ferry and is stopped by U.S. Marines where he is captured
Constitutional Union Party
Political party that recognized "no political principles other than the constitution of the country, the Union of the states, and the enforcement of the laws."
Bleecher's Bibles
was the name given to the breech loading Sharps rifles that were supplied to the anti-slavery immigrants in Kansas.
Crittenden Compromise
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
Bleeding Sumner
Senator Sumner was beaten after criticizing slavery & a Southern Senator