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Psych Chap 4 PART 2
Terms in this set (32)
Sound and the structures of the ear
Function of ear is to gather sound waves, and transform that information into neural signals.
function of hearing is to extract some sort of meaning from those sound waves ; this meaning informs you about the nature of the sound source, such as someone calling your name, a refs whistle, or a vehicle coming toward you.
simply changes in mechanical pressure transmitted through solids , liquids , gases.
refers to the wavelength and is measure in hertz, the number of cycles a sound wave travels per second. Humans are able to detect sounds in frequency from 20 to 20000 hz.
the perceptual experience of sound wave frequencies. High frequency sounds have short wavelengths and low frequency sounds have long wavelengths.
determines a sounds loudness. High amplitude sounds waves are longer than low amplitude waves.
pinna (outer ear)
the most noticeable part of your ear. helps you channel sound waves to the ear and allows you to determine the source or location of a sound.
auditory canal (outer ear)
extends from pinna to the ear drum. Sound waves reaching the eardrum cause it to vibrate.
Ossicles (middle ear)
Three bones called Malleus (hammer), Incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup). The eardrum is attached to these bones so any movement of the eardrum due to sound vibrations results in movement of Ossicles. The Ossicles attach to an inner ear structure called Cochlea.
Cochlea (inner ear)
a fluid filled membrane that is coiled in a snail-like shape and contains the structures that convert sound into neural impulses. Converting sound vibrations to neural impulses are possible because of hair like projections cells that line the basilar membrane of the cochlea.
now quite common and have been used to help tens of thousands of individuals regain some of their hearing.
the process of identifying where sound comes from, is handled by parts of the brain stem as well as by a midbrain structure called the inferior colliculus.
Two ways to localize sounds
1.) we take advantage of the slight time difference between a sound hitting both ears to estimate the direction of the source.
2.) we localize sound by using differences in the intensity in which sound is heard by both ears. Method called (sound shadow).
How does the cochlea pave the pitch for perception?
involves the specific arrangement of hair cells along the basilar membrane. Not all hair cells along the basilar membrane are equally responsive to sounds within 20 to 20 000 Hz range. High frequency sounds stimulate hair cells closest to the Ossicles where as lower frequency sounds stimulate hair cells toward the end of the cochlea. Thus how we perceive pitch is based on location along the basilar membrane that sound stimulates a tendency known as the Place theory of hearing. As it turns out this theory works well to explain hearing at higher frequencies, but hair cells for detecting lower frequencies are not so conveniently laid out at the end of the cochlea.
Another determinant of how and what we hear is the rate at which the Ossicles press into the cochlea, sending a wave of activity down the basilar membrane. According to the frequency theory, the perception of pitch is related to the frequency at which the basilar membrane vibrates. A 70 Hz sound stimulated the hair cells 70 times per second thus, 70 nerve impulses per second travel from the auditory nerves to the brain, which interprets the sound frequency in terms of pitch. However we can fire more than 1000 neurons per second.
A single neuron cant fire more than 1000 times per second but a group of neurons could certainly accomplish this feat. According to the volley principle, groups of neurons fire In alternating fashion. A sound measuring 5000 Hz can be perceives because groups of neurons fire in rapid succession.
Primary auditory cortex
major perceptual center of the brain involved in perceiving what we hear. it is organized in very similar fashion to the cochlea.
Secondary auditory cortex
helps to interpret complex sounds, including those found in speech and music. Right hemisphere is able to detect smaller changes in pitch than left hemisphere. Right hemisphere is also superior at detecting sarcasm, as this type of humour is linked to the tone of voice used.
Sense of touch
when we feel something receptors under our skin send information to the somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobes of the brain, the neural region associated with sense of touch. Women have a slightly more refined sense of touch than men because their fingers there for their receptors are smaller.
The active, exploratory aspect of touch sensation and perception. Active touch involves feedback ex: you handle an object such as a piece of fruit, you move your fingers over its surface to identify whether any faults may be present. Haptics allows us not only to identify objects but to avoid damaging or dropping them. Fingers and hands coordinate their movements using a complementary body sense called kinesthesis.
The sense of bodily motion and position. Receptors for kinesthesis reside in the muscles, joints, and tendons.
activity of nerve pathways that respond to uncomfortable stimulation.
receptors that initiate pain messages that travel to the central nervous system.
Gate control theory
explains our experience of pain as an interaction between nerves that transmit pain messages and those that inhibit these messages.
Phantom limb pain
Frequently pain experienced by amputees. they describe pain or itching or muscle contractions coming from the absent limb. Researchers suggest that this happens because the nerve cells in the cortex continue to be active, despite the absence of any input from the body. Treatment used is mirror box therapy they use the reflection of the opposite limb to feel like they have two limbs.
Functions in the sensation an perception of taste.
Salty, sweet, bitter, sour and umami.
Receptors of taste
located in the small bumps of tongue called Papillae. The papillae are lined with taste buds.
The bundles of nerves that register taste at the taste buds send the signal through the thalamus and on to higher level regions of the brain. Gustatory cortex; region in back of the frontal lobes and extends toward the insula (near top of temporal lobe).
secondary gustatory cortex
processes the pleasurable experiences associated with food.
the detection of airborne particles with specialized receptors located in the nose.
a thin layer of cells that are lined by sensory receptors called cilia-tiny hair like projections that contain specialized proteins that bind with the airborne molecules that enter the nasal cavity. These groups of cilia then transmit messages to neurons that converge on the olfactory bulb (on the bottom of frontal lobes) which serves as the brains central region for processing smell, the olfactory bulb connects with several regions of the brain through the olfactory tract . including the limbic system (emotion) as well as regions of the cortex where the subjective experience of pleasure (disgust) occurs.
the ability to combine sensation from different modalities such as vision and hearing into a single integrated perception. ex when you eat and taste thing but ur nose is plugged you will not taste very well.
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