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16 terms

Book C - Chapter 2: The Cell in Action

STUDY
PLAY
Active transport
the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion; requires cells to use energy.
Binary fission
the simple cell division in which one cell splits into two; used by bacteria
Cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell; in eukaryotes it consists of chromosome duplication, mitosis, and cytokinesis
Cellular respiration
the process of producing ATP in the cell from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide and water
Centromere
the region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated
Chromatids
identical chromosome copies
Chromosome
a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division
Cytokinesis
"the process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis"
Diffusion
the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area where their concentration is low
Endocytosis
the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell
Exocytosis
"the process used to remove large particles from a cell; during exocytosis, a vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell membrane"
Fermentation
the breakdown of sugars to make ATP in the absence of oxygen
Homologous chromosomes
chromosomes with matching information
Osmosis
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane
Passive transport
the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas where the concentration of particles is high to areas where the concentration of particles is low
Photosynthesis
the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar