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Active transport

the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion; requires cells to use energy.

Binary fission

the simple cell division in which one cell splits into two; used by bacteria

Cell cycle

the life cycle of a cell; in eukaryotes it consists of chromosome duplication, mitosis, and cytokinesis

Cellular respiration

the process of producing ATP in the cell from oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide and water


the region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated


identical chromosome copies


a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division


"the process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis"


the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area where their concentration is low


the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell


"the process used to remove large particles from a cell; during exocytosis, a vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell membrane"


the breakdown of sugars to make ATP in the absence of oxygen

Homologous chromosomes

chromosomes with matching information


the diffusion of water across a cell membrane

Passive transport

the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas where the concentration of particles is high to areas where the concentration of particles is low


the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar

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