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26 terms

Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health

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Emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James-Lange Theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard Theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
Two-Factor Theory
Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
Polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
Catharsis
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Subjective Well-Being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Relative Deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Behavioral Medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
Health Psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
Stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages--alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Coronary Heart Disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
Type A
Personality characterized by (1) a strong competitive orientation, (2) impatience and time urgency, and (3) anger and hostility.
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
Psychophysiological Illness
Literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
Lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
Coping
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
Problem-Focused Coping
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
Emotion-Focused Coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
Aerobic Exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
Biofeedback
a training program in which a person is given information about physiological processes (heart rate or blood pressure) that is not normally available with the goal of gaining conscious control of them
Complementary and Alernative Medicine (CAM)
As yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) pr serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice.