the grinding and wearing down of rock surfaces by other rock or sand particles
precipitation that contains acids due to air pollution
the layer of rock beneath soil
the chemical breakdown of rocks and minerals into new substances
the process by which softer, less weather-resistant rocks wear away, leaving harder, more weather-resistant rocks behind
the removal and transport of material by wind, water, or ice
very small particles of decayed plant and animal material in soil
the mechanical weathering process in which water seeps into cracks in rock, freezes, then expands, opening the cracks even wider
the process by which rainwater dissolves and carries away the minerals and nutrients in topsoil
the breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by physical means
a chemical reaction in which an element combines with oxygen to form an oxide
rock that is the source of soil
soil that remains above the bedrock from which it formed
a loose mixture of small mineral fragments and organic material
the various methods by which humans take care of the soil
the top layer of soil that generally contains humus
soil that has been blown or washed away from its parent rock
the breakdown of rock into smaller and smaller pieces by mechanical or chemical means
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