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APUSH Ch. 22 - Imperial Era
Terms in this set (67)
the conquest of other peoples/nations for various reasons (political, economic, humanitarian)
Engineering advances that aided imperialism
steamships, machine guns, telegraphs, malaria drugs
the outward movement of goods, ships, money, people, and ideas
the perception that a country, society, institution, movement, or time period is "exceptional" in some way and thus does not need to conform to normal rules or general principles
Why did Americans believe they were "exceptional"?
Anglo-Saxon, relatively wealthy, nationalism, Social Darwinism, capitalism, paternalistic attitude
What did Woodrow Wilson say that shows the paternalistic attitude of Americans toward other peoples?
"They are children and we are men in these deep matters of government."
Foreign policy elite
opinion leaders in politics, journalism, business, agriculture, religion, education, and the military (ex. TR, Henry Cabot Lodge, John Hay, Elihu Root, Henry Adams)
military occupation, annexation, colonization
economic domination, political manipulation, threat of intervention
Economic Motives for Imperialism
profit from foreign sales, safety valve for overproduction/unemployment, spread capitalism, easier trade routes
Political Motives for Imperialism
military/naval bases, increase foreign influence, compete against other world superpowers
Humanitarian Motives for Imperialism
spread English, Christianity, American values, medical treatment
favorable balance of trade
export more than you import
Reverend Josiah Strong
"Our Country" (1885) - "to be a Christian and an Anglo-Saxon is to stand at the very mountaintop of privilege"
Main ideas from "Our Country"
1) The Anglo-Saxon race is destined to be the dominate race
2) Americans are the most powerful Anglo-Saxons because of our style government, the pace of our economic development, and the possibility of social mobility
3) These previously mentioned advantages are reasons for American expansion and the adoption of American values
Founded by Alexander Graham Bell
Burlingame Treaty (1868)
Treaty that allowed free immigration between the US and China
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Forbid further Chinese immigration to the US
Rock Springs Massacre (1885)
Coal miners and railroad workers riot and massacre 25 Chinese workers (Chinese workers payed less --> hired over white workers)
San Francisco School Board Decision (1906)
Allowed for the segregation of Asians into special schools. Tokyo protested against the unfair treatment of Japanese citizens, so TR made a "gentleman' s agreement" which restricted the flow of immigrants. This agreement was probably made to keep trade relations good.
California Legislature (1913)
Denied Japanese the right to own California property.
The "Civilizing" Impulse
The desire to extend liberty and prosperity to people who you do not consider to already enjoy those things, based on your egotistic world view
Student Volunteers for Foreign Missions
A volunteer organization founded in the 1880s that sent American university students abroad to spread American values and ideals.
Missionaries who went abroad (many to China) to spread Christianity, teach English, and provide medical care.
William H. Seward
Secretary of State under Lincoln. Expansionist - believed other countries were Americanized by a natural pull towards the US, not because of war. Many of his actions were unsuccessful (buy Virgin Islands, create a naval base at Samana Bay) and even those that are considered successful now (Alaska, Midway Islands) were criticized in his time.
Focused mostly on formal imperialism. Cited the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution as proof that other nations deserved self-determination. Women's clubs and organizations warned that the American character was being corrupted, and black people said that giving freedom to Cubans and Filipinos but not to blacks was a double standard. They were still racist, saying that they didn't want to associate "half-breeds and semi-barbaric people" with America.
Justified expansionism with patriotism, destiny, and commerce. They believed in Social Darwinism and thought they were "taking up the white man's burden" by "lifting up less civilized peoples". Another justification for expansionism was the desire to remain in the global scramble for international power.
Bought from Russia in 1867 for $7.2 million (for 591,000 sq. mi). Called "Seward's Icebox".
A naval base established in 1867. Part of America's island hopping toward Asia in order to increase trade.
1866, transatlantic cable (Cyrus Field)
1890, US --> Latin America telegraph lines (JP Morgan)
1903, US --> Philippines submarine cable
1906, US --> Japan/China submarine cable
Seward's successor Hamilton Fish (1869-1887), for example, achieved a diplomatic victory in resolving the knotty problem of the Alabama claims. The Alabama and other vessels built in Great Britain for the Confederacy during the Civil War had preyed on Union shipping. Senator Charles Sumner demanded that Britain pay $2 billion in damages or cede Canada to the United States, but Fish favored negotiations.
Washington Treaty (1871)
In 1871 Britain and America signed this treaty, whereby the British apologized and agreed to the creation of a tribunal which later awarded the United States $15.5 million.
US gains right to coaling station at Pago Pago port, which was also wanted by Germany and Britain. These countries sent warships and aggravated factionalism in Samoan chiefs. In 1889, Germany, Britain, and the US met in Berlin and (without consulting the Samoans) decided on a 3-part protectorate limiting Samoan independence. Ten years later, Samoa was partitioned between the 3 countries, and the US received what is now called American Samoa and also Pago Pago port.
the campaign to build up an imperial navy
Captain Alfred T. Manan
Big proponent of navalism. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power upon History". Stressed that a large navy was necessary to protect shipping and colonies were needed for strategic naval bases.
By 1880, Americans (who made up 2.1% of the Hawaiian population) owned 3/4 of the country's wealth. They subordinated the Hawaiian economy through duty-free sugar exports to the US. In 1887, the American elite forced the king to accept a new constitution giving foreigners the right to vote, which shifted the Hawaiian government from monarchy to legislature, and also gave the US naval rights to Pearl Harbor. The McKinley Tariff in 1890 created duties on Hawaiian sugar, dropping prices and therefore profits. Because of this, the Americans pressed their government for annexation, which would result in no duties on sugar. In 1891, Princess Lili'uokalani assumed the throne, and she didn't like the power that the US held over her country. In retaliation, the Americans formed the Annexation Club in 1892, and in 1893 the USS Boston dispatched troops to occupy Honolulu. The Queen surrendered, and a new provisional regime, led by Sanford Dole was established. However, Lili'uokalani gave authority to the US government instead of the new regime, and in 1898 Hawaii was annexed through the Newlands Resolution.
The organization formed by the American island elite which looked to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy.
Harrison originally sent the annexation treaty to the senate right when he was leaving the office, but the new president (Cleveland) ordered an investigation, and since he found that most Hawaiians opposed annexation, he pulled the treaty. When McKinley later moved the resolution through Congress in 1898, it was approved with a majority vote (the reason it wasn't a treaty was that a treaty requires a 2/3 vote in the Senate)
Organic Act (1900)
An act giving the Hawaiian people US citizenship and the right to vote in local elections, as well as a nonvoting representative in Congress. Statehood was granted in 1959.
A border dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela over gold deposits and the Orinoco River causes Venezuela to ask the US for help. The British retreat after Sec. of State Richard Olney lectures them about the Monroe Doctrine, but mostly because they were more worried about the expansion of Germany in Europe. In 1896, an Anglo-American arbitration board divides the disputed territory (Venezuelans are barely consulted - shows disregard for the rights of small nations).
From 1868 to 1878, Cubans battle the Spanish for independence. Americans financially supported the Cuban cause because of their economic relationship - Americans invested in sugar (90% of exports were to the US), most island imports came from America, and Cuban cigar factories moved to Florida to get around tariffs. The Cuban economy went through a down period after the Wilson-Gorman Tariff was introduced in 1894 because of a new duty on Cuban sugar. In 1895, Jose Marti, the leader of the revolution against Spain, launched the revolution while in the US. The Spanish introduced a policy of reconcentration, which increased US sympathy for the Cuban cause. McKinley believed that Spain should give up Cuba, so he ordered the battleship Maine to Havana harbor. An explosion killed most of the American officers and crew on board, and in the same month a private letter was published which criticized McKinley. Outraged, the US sent Spain an ultimatum, and although both terms (armistice + end reconcentration) were eventually agreed to, the US still declared war on Spain.
The name of the Cuban revolution movement. Lead by Jose Marti and Maximo Gomez.
Originally used by the Spanish during the Cuban revolution. Spanish soldiers herded Cubans into fortified towns and camps where they faced starvation and disease. This was done to separate supporters from rebels.
Cuban War Declaration
Reasons for going to war: in the name of humanity, to protect American life and property, prevent injury to commerce and trade, and to get revenge for the Maine incident. However, McKinley refused a Constitutional Amendment recognizing the rebel government because he thought Cuba wasn't ready for self government.
Accompanied Cuban War Declaration. Disclaimed any US intention to annex Cuba or do anything other than ensure "pacification".
Louis A. Pérez Jr: "Directed as much against Cuban independence as it was against Spanish sovereignty."
Dewey in the Philippines
Another Spanish rebellion. In 1898, Dewey's ship Olympia led a squadron into Manila Bay and wrecked the Spanish fleet. The Philippines were important to the US because of trade with China and because Manila was a good naval harbor.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
American and Spanish negotiators. Cuba gets its independence. America gets possession of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Spain gets $20 million from the US in exchange for the islands mentioned previously. Most Republicans voted yes, and most Democrats voted no, however because of a Republican majority in the Senate, the treaty was approved.
An organization of anti-imperialists. Not successful because anti-imperialists were not unified in principles. For example, some supported expansionism but not colonization, etc.
Emilio Aguinaldo, Philippine nationalist leader, believed the US had promised them independence, felt betrayed by Treaty of Paris, and declared an independent Philippine republic. Revolutionaries conducted hit-and-run ambushes. Americans fought back extremely violently - burning crops and villages, torturing captives, and imposed their own version of reconcentration. Only 4,000 Americans died, but a total of 620,000 Filipinos died, mostly from starvation and disease.
Moro Province Filipinos
Muslim, anti-Christian, violent, pro-independence Filipinos. Provincial governor --> General Leonard Wood. Defeated in the Battle of Bud Dajo (1906). 600 Moros were slaughtered, including women and children.
Americanization of the Philippines
1) Architect Daniel Burnham (leader of the City Beautiful Movement) plans a modern Manila
2) new English language education system
3) Sedition Act
Jones Act (1916)
Act promising Filipino independence after a "stable government" is built
National Monetary Commission
Created by the Aldrich-Vreeland Act of 1908 after the Panic of 1907. The chairman of the Commission, Senator Nelson Aldrich led a team of experts to major European capitals, where they discovered how much more efficient the European financial system appeared to be. The Commission's reports and recommendations became one of the principal bases in the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 which created the modern Federal Reserve system.
the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Federal Reserve System
The US banking system. Creates government involvement in the economy.
Federal Reserve Board of Trustees
Oversees Federal Reserve Banks. Not elected, so they aren't partisan. Often composed of economists, academics, or important business people. Currently Janet Yellen is the first chair of the board.
Federal Reserve Banks
Lend money to Member Banks. There are 12 regional banks. They don't interact with private customers at all.
Invest or buy stock in Federal Reserve Banks because government bonds are more stable than company stock. Some are national and some are local. Lend money to private customers.
Deposit money in and receive loans from member banks.
A fee that federal reserve banks charge member banks for lending money in exchange for a promissory note (IOU). The rate is changed based on the success of the economy: if the rate goes up, that means more people can afford to pay higher rates, so the economy is doing better. Creates a flexible money supply and prevents perpetual economic downturns.
Mints money and provides bailouts to companies. Run by the Secretary of the Treasury.
the means by which a government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to monitor and influence a nation's economy.
Washington's Farewell Address
ISOLATIONIST. Washington warned to "stay out of foreign entanglements". Since the US was still young, he thought building up internally was more important than building outward abroad.
The Monroe Doctrine
DEFENSIVE. JQA wanted European powers to stay out the Western hemisphere in the name of Democracy (Dec. of Independence). If they invaded, we would declare war. HOWEVER, didn't apply to the US invading other W. hemisphere countries.
"City Upon A Hill"
John Winthrop. American superiority because of a covenant with God.
Supports expansionism --> since the frontier is closed, Americans should go North and South. Ended up only going South because the Canadians (British) were our Anglo-Saxon allies.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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