During the American Revolution, he helped lead the assault at Yorktown that resulted in a British surrender. In the 1780s, he became a vocal critic of the Articles of Confederation, condemning them for their ineffectiveness. At the Constitutional Convention, he, with such notables as James Madison and Benjamin Franklin pushed for a powerful executive and federal supremacy. He rallied support for the new constitution through writing of several articles that, along with those of Madison and John Jay, became known as the Federalist Papers. With the Constitution ratified and Washington elected, he was appointed secretary of the treasury. As Treasury Secretary, he immediately confronted the main problem facing the new government, namely its finances. In building support for his program, Hamilton created the Federalist Party. In 1804, he was killed in a duel with his political nemesis, Aaron Burr. This battle took place on November 7, 1811 between Shawnee Indians and U.S. forces. In the years after 1805, the Shawnee Prophet and his brother Tecumseh encouraged Indian resistance to U.S. demands for land in the Old Northwest. William Henry Harrison, the governor of Indiana Territory, was greatly concerned and organized more than 1,000 troops. The Prophet had decided that he must attack to forestall Harrison. This battle was fiercely fought, and the Americans lost nearly 200 killed and wounded. It is likely that Indian casualties were about the same. Harrison, however, claimed a major victory because the Indians dispersed. The Indians, however, were now more determined than ever to resist the Americans, and many were ready to join the British in the event of war. As an orator, champion of the Union, and constitutional lawyer, he was one of the great statesmen of his day. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1812 and served there until1816. He subsequently pursued a highly successful legal practice that involved several precedent-setting appearances before the U.S. Supreme Court. His arguments in Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) were supported by Chief Justice John Marshall and earned him the nickname "Expounder of the Constitution." As a member of the newly formed Whig Party, he argued for higher protective tariffs and attacked Calhoun's theory of nullification in his famous debates against Robert Hayne in 1830. Years later, with the Union in danger of a civil war over slavery, he backed Clay's compromise efforts. In the course of debate, he spoke in favor of compromise, "not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern man, but as an American." This man led the remarkable exodus of the Mormons to Utah, where in one of the most successful colonizing efforts in U.S. history, he established a strong religious, social, and economic base. Convinced that they could not live peacefully within the boundaries of the United States, Mormons, led by this man, headed west. At the time, the area around the Great Salt Lake belonged to Mexico and was thus beyond the jurisdiction of the U.S. government. The California gold rush of 1849 and the completion of the transcontinental railroad 20 years later, however, ended Mormon hopes that the they could live for very long in isolation, but by then he Mormons had established a solid economic, political, religious, and social organization in Utah. This political party, formed in 1834 and lasting until 1854, was the major political party opposing Andrew Jackson, who they called, "King Andrew," and his Democratic Party in the antebellum era. The party inherited the Federalist belief in a strong federal government and adopted many Federalist and National Republican policy ideas, including federal funding for internal improvements (building roads, canals, bridges; improving harbors), a central bank, and high tariffs to protect the growth of manufacturing enterprises. Famous members of this party included President William Henry Harrison, President Zachary Taylor, and Henry Clay. As President Andrew Jackson's campaign manager, political confidant, secretary of state, vice president, and finally, handpicked successor, this man played a major role in national politics and the establishment of Jacksonian democracy as a significant political force. Elected president in 1836, he promised to adhere to Jackson's policies, but a severe economic depression, the Panic of 1837, lasted throughout his administration and quickly undermined his popularity. He was defeated by the first Whig president, William Henry Harrison in 1840. By 1848, a coalition disgruntled Democrats and Whigs met in Buffalo, New York, formed the Free Soil Party, which was pledged to a platform against slavery, and nominated this former president as their candidate. After losing again, he retired from politics. This is the name given to the 1840 Presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison. Harrison was the first president to campaign actively for office. Whigs, eager to deliver what the public wanted, declared that Harrison was "the ___ ___ and hard cider candidate," a man of the common people from the rough-and-tumble West. They depicted Harrison's opponent, President Martin Van Buren, as a wealthy snob who was out of touch with the people. In fact, it was Harrison who came from a wealthy, prominent family while Van Buren was from a poor, working family. But the election was during the worst economic depression to date, and voters blamed Van Buren. Harrison served only one month as president before dying of pneumonia on April 4, 1841. He was the most important and the most technically accomplished portrait painter in the years after the American Revolution, and his many paintings of the new country's president, George Washington, were in great demand. In the early fall of 1796, the president sat for a portrait. Commissioned by Martha Washington, it was never finished. Nevertheless, it became the most popular image of Washington, and it appears on the United States' $1 bill. Following the national government to Washington, D.C., he painted Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. This movement in the United States flourished in the mid-19th century, particularly in the northeast and middle west. Hundreds of informal associations were established for the purpose of improving the social, intellectual, and moral fabric of society. Noted lecturers, entertainers and readers would travel the "circuit," going from town to town or state to state to entertain, speak, or debate. Transcendentalists such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau gave speeches at many local events. As a young man, Abraham Lincoln gave a speech at one of these gatherings in Springfield, Illinois. This movement — with its lectures, dramatic performances, class instructions, and debates — contributed significantly to the education of the adult American in the nineteenth century. This was a period of widespread political reform that lasted from the 1890s through the first two decades of the 20th century. The movement actually comprised a number of efforts on the local, state, and national levels, and included both Democrats and Republicans who championed such causes as tax reform, woman suffrage, political reform, industrial regulation, the minimum wage, the eight-hour work day, and workers' compensation. The reform-minded enthusiasm of this era came to an end as the United States entered World War I in 1917, and energies were redirected into the war effort. He was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals. His reputation as a "bandit" grew when he seized hacienda land for distribution to peasants and soldiers and robbed and commandeered trains. In 1916, he led a raid on the New Mexico town of Columbus. His gang killed 10 civilians and 8 soldiers, and burned the town, took many horses and mules, seized available machine guns, ammunition and merchandise, before they returned to Mexico. On March 15, on orders from President Woodrow Wilson, General John J. Pershing led an expeditionary force of 4,800 men into Mexico to capture this leader. While Pershing failed to caputre his target, he and his troops reduced Mexican incursions in to the United States. As his colleague observed, he was a reporter who "not only got the news, but cared about it." Armed with a pencil, a notebook, and a camera, he documented the overcrowding, lack of proper sanitation, and grinding poverty of the slums. In 1890, his first and most famous book, How the Other Half Lives, was published. Packed with harrowing details and illustrated with drawings based on his photographs, How the Other Half Lives was a powerful indictment of slum conditions. His exposés of conditions in New York City's slums influenced a generation of investigative reporters, known as muckrakers, and set the standard for future photojournalists. In 1889, she moved into a mansion donated by Charles Hull on the west side of Chicago. She then transformed the mansion into the "Hull House," the nation's first settlement house. Hull House helped new immigrants and others in need with a variety of programs. At one time or another, it offered kindergarten and daycare facilities for children of working mothers, an employment bureau, an art gallery, libraries, music and art classes, a theater, and a meeting place for trade unions. In 1931, this founder became the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. This was the name given to The First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, formed in 1898 on the eve of the Spanish-American War by Assistant Secretary to the Navy Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt recruited 1,250 cowboys, Native Americans, Eastern aristocrats, and Ivy League athletes, among others. On June 30, Roosevelt was promoted to the rank of colonel and the following day, led the charge on Kettle Hill to help drive the Spanish from their fortifications on San Juan Hill. On September 16, 1898, the men were shipped home after 137 days of service. In the end, one out of three Rough Riders was either killed, wounded, or afflicted by disease, the highest casualty rate among troops who served in the Spanish-American War. He copied Joseph Pulitzer's methods and made his "New York Journal" newspaper even more popular than Pulitzer's "New York World." The circulation war between the two papers produced "yellow journalism," or an excessively lurid style of reporting. Also, by firing public sentiment against Spain, he helped cause the Spanish-American War of 1898. His journalistic empire grew through buying or starting newspapers in Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Seattle, and other cities. He also acquired such magazines as Cosmopolitan, Good Housekeeping, and Harper's.