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Book O - Chapter 2: The Nature of Sound
the maximum distance a wave vibrates from its rest position
a region of higher density or pressure in a wave
interference that results in a wave that has a greater amplitude than that of the individual waves
(dB) the most common unit used to express loudness
interference that results in a wave that has a smaller amplitude than that of the individual waves
the bending of waves around a barrier or through an opening
the apparent change in the frequency of a sound caused by the motion of either the listener or the source of the sound (refers to sound only)
a reflected sound wave
the process of using reflected sound waves to find objects
the number of waves produced in a given amount of time
the lowest resonant frequency
(Hz) the unit used to express frequency; one hertz is one cycle per second
the term describing sounds with frequencies lower than 20 Hz
the part of the ear where vibrations created by sound are changed into electrical signals for the brain to interpret
a wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap
how loud or soft a sound is perceived to be
a substance through which a wave can travel
the part of the ear where the amplitude of sound vibrations is increased
any undesired sound, especially nonmusical sound, that includes a random mix of pitches
a device used to graph representations of sound waves
"the part of the ear that acts as a funnel to direct sound waves into the middle ear"
resonant frequencies that are higher than the fundamental
how high or low a sound is perceived to be
a region of lower density or pressure in a wave
the bouncing back of a wave after it strikes a barrier or an object
what occurs when an object vibrating at or near a resonant frequency of a second object causes the second object to vibrate
the frequencies at which standing waves are made
(sound navigation and ranging) a type of electronic echolocation
"the explosive sound heard when a shock wave from an object traveling faster than the speed of sound reaches a person's ears"
the result of several pitches blending together through interference
"a wave that forms a stationary pattern in which portions of the wave do not move and other portions move with a large amplitude"
hearing loss resulting from damage to the hair cells and nerve endings in the cochlea
the term describing sounds with frequencies higher than 20,000 Hz
"a medical procedure that uses echoes from ultrasonic waves to "see" inside a patient's body without performing surgery"
the complete back-and-forth motion of an object
a disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space