50 terms

Biology Test 3

Cell Respiration, Fermentation, Photosynthesis,
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3-Phosphoglycerate
First product of the Calvin Cycle, generated when rubisco fixes carbon and immediately splits the resulting 6-carbon molecule in half
ADP
The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
Alcohol fermentation
The process by which certain cells convert pyruvate from glycolysis into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen
ATP
Main energy source that cells use for most of their work
Autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
C3 Plants
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
C4 Plants
Plants that have adapted their photosynthetic process to more efficiently handle hot and dry conditions by
Incorporating carbon from CO2 into a four carbon compound before proceeding to Calvin cycle
Calvin cycle
"Dark" reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars and starches
CAM Plants
plants close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until it is needed during the day for photosynthesis
Cellular respiration
Catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules and use an electron transport chain for the production of ATP
Chemiosmosis
An energy- coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP
Chlorophyll
A green pigment located in membranes within the chloroplasts of plants and algae and in the membranes of certain prokaryotes that participates in photosynthesis
Chloroplast
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protests that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water
Citric acid cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and occurs within the mitochondrion of eukaryotes
Electromagnetic spectrum
The entire range of electromagnetic radiation, from less than a nanometer in wavelength to more than a kilometer
Electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
Facultative anaerobes
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but switches to anaerobic respiration or fermentation if oxygen is not present
Fermentation
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose or other organic molecules without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
G3P
3 carbon molecule used to make glucose in the Calvin Cycle
Glycolysis
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
Lactic acid fermentation
when glucose is converted into ATP in the absence of oxygen and lactic acid is the waste product
Light reactions
The first of two major stages in photosynthesis. In these reactions, solar energy and water are converted into ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process
Mitochondrion
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration
NAD+
low-energy version of an electron carrier involved in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
NADP+
low-energy version of a carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules during photosynthesis
NADPH
high-energy version of a carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules during photosynthesis
Obligate aerobes
An organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live without it.
Obligate anaerobes
An organism that only carries out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and is killed in the presence of oxygen
Oxidation
The complete or partial loss of electrons from a substance
Oxidative phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
Photons
A discrete quantity of light energy that behaves as if it were a particle
Photorespiration
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output. Generally occurs on hot, dry, and bright days
Photosynthesis
The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds by plants, algae, and prokaryotes
Photosystem I
The second of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane that absorbs light energy at 700 nm in wavelength
Photosystem II
The first of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane that absorbs light energy at 680 nm in wavelength
Pigment
A chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color (ex. chlorophyll, carotinoids)
Pyruvate
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
Reduction
The complete or partial addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction
RuBP
The 5-carbon molecule that accepts CO2 at the beginning of the Calvin cycle
Stomata
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
Stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Catabolic
A process in which large molecules are broken down (ex. fermentation, cellular respiration)
Anabolic
Creation of larger molecules from smaller ones (ex. photosynthesis, protein synthesis)
Heterotroph
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.
Absorption spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
Action spectrum
Shows the rate of photosynthesis vs. wavelength as a cumulative effect of all pigments present in a plant, protist, or prokaryote
Photosystem
A light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes
Chemical energy
A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.
NADH
high-energy version of an electron carrier used in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle