AP World - Trade Routes during Post-Classical
Terms in this set (58)
Name four trade routes active during this period
Trans-Sahara, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Silk Road
In general, how did trade during the post-classical period change POLITICAL LIFE?
motivated the creation of states in various places; sustained states once constructed; spread disease-baring germs
In general how did trade during this period change ECONOMIES?
altered consumption; created specialization for products to be sold in markets; diminished economies' self-sufficiency; spurred technological innovations; conveyed status to small communities from major civilizations
In general, how did trade in this period change SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE?
merchants emerged as a distinct social group; trade became a means of social mobility; elite groups were distinguished from commoners; religious ideas spread
What disrupted the Ocean Trade and the Silk Road during this period?
Through which cities did Europeans first enter the trade loop?
Venice and Genoa on the Mediterranean
Which two sea-trading routes linked the Muslim Empire together?
Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean
Who wound up dominating the sea trade during this time?
How did Muslim money changers encourage the flow of trade?
set up banks throughout the caliphate so merchants could easily trade with those at far distances
Where was the Trans-Sahara trade route?
across the Sahara between North Africa and Europe beyond to West Africa
How did Saharan trade originate?
rooted in environmental variation; trade among agricultural people themselves
How did trade happen in the Saharan trade route?
boats along the Niger River, donkeys and camels overland; caravans; the journey may take up to 70 days; they used a "this for that" technique; Jenne-Jeno (crucial point of Niger River)
How did the environment affect Sahara trade?
the savanna grasslands and forest areas provided economic incentive for the exchange of goods
What goods were traded from sub-Saharan areas?
Gold, ivory, slaves, and spices
What goods were traded from the Sahara?
salt, cloth, metalware, gold and palm oil
What impact did the Trans-Sahara trade have on the culture?
Aided the rise of African empires and kingdoms in West Africa; spread Islam through West Africa; spurred the construction of new and larger political structures; monarchies with elaborate court life; varying degrees of administrative complexity; gender sexism
Name four countries or regions that were part of the Indian Ocean trade route.
Africa, China, Burma, India
What role did India play in the Indian Ocean trade?
India was the fulcrum of a growing commercial network
What role did Islam play in the Indian Ocean trade?
The expansion of Islam gave rise to an international maritime culture.
What goods were traded along the Indian Ocean trade route?
slaves, ivory, gold and iron from Africa; porcelain from China; pottery from Burma; cloth from India; generally: spices, pepper, timber, rice, sugar, wheat
What made trade possible along the Indian Ocean route?
Monsoons; alternating wind currents went east in summer and west in winter
What new technologies were used or discovered along the Indian Ocean trade route?
shipbuilding, oceanic navigation, double outrigger canoes, magnetic needle compass, calculating latitude; new sails and ships
How did transportation costs along the Indian Ocean trade route compare to those along the Silk Road?
transportation costs were lower along the Indian Ocean route than along the Silk Road
How was the Indian Ocean trade more efficient than the Silk Road (mom's wording)?
Ships could carry larger and heavier cargo; they could move bulk goods destined for mass market
What impact did Indian Ocean trade have on politics, or empires?
sudden rise in Islam; larger and more centralized governed states/cities;
How did the Indian ocean trade impact economies?
there was extensive commercial life in the western Indian Ocean following the Rise of Islam; the merchant class developed; the Swahili participated in trade
what impact did Indian Ocean trade have on society?
Slave trade; Indian aspects of life influenced Southeast Asia; Srivijaya mounted a massive building program; class became more stratified with sharp distincitions between the mercantile elite and commoners; towns became sizeable
What geographical regions were connected by the Indian Ocean trade route?
East Africa and Asia
These peoples facilitated the trade along the Indian Ocean
Arabs, Indians, Malayans, and Indonesians
when direct trade began with the Indian Ocean route
Where was the Silk Road route?
from China across Asia to Middle East
What was it like before the Silk Road came into being?
for centuries, pastoral people traded and raided; the movement of pastoral people caused the diffusion of Indo-European languages, bronze, metallurgy, horse-based tech, and more; indirect trading connections linked civilizations in network of trans-continental exchange
Who controlled the Silk Road route?
It prospered most when large and powerful states provided security for merchants and travelers.
What was traded along the Silk Road?
bronze metallurgy; horse-based tech; Silk; Buddhism; small pox, measles, and Bubonic plague
How did they trade on the Silk Road?
camels, horses, oxen used; C.A. silk used as currency
What new technologies or discoveries were used along the Silk Road?
yokes, saddles, and stirrups; the knowledge & technology for producing raw silk spread beyond China
How were women impacted by trade on the Silk Road?
They had to make the silk
How were peasants in the Yangzi River valley impacted by Silk Road trade?
They sometimes quite food production in order to make tradeable items.
Besides women and peasants, who else was impacted by Silk Road trade?
favorably placed people who did well from long-distance trade; ordinary farmers; Roman writers who were appalled at the drain of resources that silk represented
What impact did Silk Road trade have on empires surrounding China?
Koreans, Japanese, Indians and Persians all learned how to produce silk
What impact did the Silk Road Trade have on other empires?
smallpox and measles devastated Rome; Byzantine Empire lost thousands to the Black Death; the Europeans who survived the diseases then had an advantage over the Americas
What was the impact of Silk Road trade on economies?
Economies depended heavily on peasant taxes, which were often paid in cloth
What impact did Silk Road have on religion?
Silk associated with Buddhism and Christianity; religious appeal strengthened after diseases hit; the Black Death made Muslim armies harder to resist by Christendom
What impact did the Silk Road have on society?
Silk represented high status; women sought silk for comfort and fashion; diseases were transmitted along the trade route
What was traded in North America (Cahokia)?
shells, copper, buffalo hides, obsidian, mica
How did the environment impact North American trade?
Cahokia lay at the center of a widespread trading network; it was in the middle of other civilizations
How was trade conducted in North America
dugout canoes along the rivers of the eastern woodlands
How did the environment impact trade in MesoAmerica (Aztecs)?
Panama acted as a bottle neck
What was traded in Mesoamerica (Aztecs)?
copper bells, macaw feathers, tons of shells
What was the environment where the Incas traded?
mountains; not as many rivers
What was traded in the Andes Mountains (Incas)?
food, clothing, military supplies, blankets, construction materials
How was trade conducted in the Andes Mountains?
state run operation; caravans; llamas
How was trade different in the Americas than in other regions studied in this unit?
America had a north/south axis; Europe had an east/west axis, which was better for diffusion
Why was there no trade between north, central and south America during this time?
the North/South orientation of the Americas made the spread of agricultural product slow because it required ag practices to move through and adapt to quite distinct climate and vegetation zones
Name four similarities between Silk Road, Indian Ocean Trade and Sahara desert trade.
all traded some sort of cloth; all traded some sort of metal; new governments came out of each route; religion diffused along each of the trade routes
What was similar between the Silk Road and the Indian Ocean trade routes?
religions spread along both
What was similar between the Indian Ocean and Saharan trade routes?
What was similar between the Silk Road and the Saharan desert trade routes?
camels and donkeys used
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