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most prevalent extracellular anion, can help balance the level of anions in different fluid compartments.
second most prevalent extracellular anion, mainly regulated by the kidneys, important for acid base balance.
ions that mostly combined with lipids, proteins, carbs, nucleic acids and ATP inside cells
second most common intracelluar cation, is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carb, protein, and Na +/K+ ATPase metabolism
the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid, plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential
the most abundant mineral in the body, plays important roles in blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, maintence of muscle tone, and the excitability of nervous and muscle tissue
can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongate, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing.
can by causes by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of kidneys to excrete H+
cam be caused by excessive vomiting of gastic contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs
condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases
the swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells
required amounts of water and solutes are present and are correctly proportioned among the various compartments.
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
bicarb ion acts as weak base, and carbonic acid acts as weak acid
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