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the most abundant extracelluar cation, essential in fluid and electrolyte balance


most prevalent extracellular anion, can help balance the level of anions in different fluid compartments.


inorganic substances that dissociate into ions when in solution


second most prevalent extracellular anion, mainly regulated by the kidneys, important for acid base balance.


substances that act to prevent rapid, drastic changes in the pH of a body fluid


ions that mostly combined with lipids, proteins, carbs, nucleic acids and ATP inside cells


second most common intracelluar cation, is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carb, protein, and Na +/K+ ATPase metabolism


the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid, plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential


the most abundant mineral in the body, plays important roles in blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, maintence of muscle tone, and the excitability of nervous and muscle tissue

respiratory acidosis

can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongate, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing.

respiratory alkalosis

can be caused by O2 deficiency at high altitude, stroke or severe anxiety

metabolic acidosis

can by causes by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of kidneys to excrete H+

metabolic alkalosis

cam be caused by excessive vomiting of gastic contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs


occurs when water loss is greater then water gain


condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases

water intoxication

the swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells


an abnormal increase in the volume of interstitial fluid

fluid balance

required amounts of water and solutes are present and are correctly proportioned among the various compartments.

angiotensin II

stimulates the secretion of aldosterone, reduces loss of water in urine


promotes urinary reabsorption, reduces loss of water in urine


promotes natriuersis, increases loss of water in urine


promotes insertion, reduces loss of water in urine.

protein buffer system

most abundant buffer in intracellular fluid and blood plasma

carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system

bicarb ion acts as weak base, and carbonic acid acts as weak acid

phosphate buffer system

via a mechanism similar to the one for carb-acid bi carb buffer system


blood pH is below 7.35


blood pH is higher than 7.45

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