the most abundant extracelluar cation, essential in fluid and electrolyte balance
most prevalent extracellular anion, can help balance the level of anions in different fluid compartments.
inorganic substances that dissociate into ions when in solution
second most prevalent extracellular anion, mainly regulated by the kidneys, important for acid base balance.
substances that act to prevent rapid, drastic changes in the pH of a body fluid
ions that mostly combined with lipids, proteins, carbs, nucleic acids and ATP inside cells
second most common intracelluar cation, is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carb, protein, and Na +/K+ ATPase metabolism
the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid, plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential
the most abundant mineral in the body, plays important roles in blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, maintence of muscle tone, and the excitability of nervous and muscle tissue
can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongate, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing.
can be caused by O2 deficiency at high altitude, stroke or severe anxiety
can by causes by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of kidneys to excrete H+
cam be caused by excessive vomiting of gastic contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs
occurs when water loss is greater then water gain
condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases
the swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells
an abnormal increase in the volume of interstitial fluid
required amounts of water and solutes are present and are correctly proportioned among the various compartments.
stimulates the secretion of aldosterone, reduces loss of water in urine
promotes urinary reabsorption, reduces loss of water in urine
promotes natriuersis, increases loss of water in urine
promotes insertion, reduces loss of water in urine.
protein buffer system
most abundant buffer in intracellular fluid and blood plasma
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
bicarb ion acts as weak base, and carbonic acid acts as weak acid
phosphate buffer system
via a mechanism similar to the one for carb-acid bi carb buffer system
blood pH is below 7.35
blood pH is higher than 7.45
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