Can block the trachea with mucus. Cystic fibrosis (also known as CF, mucovoidosis, or mucoviscidosis) is a genetic disorder known to be an inherited disease of the secretory glands, including the glands that make mucus and sweat.
can increase physiological dead space, Emphysema is characterized by loss of elasticity (decreased pulmonary compliance) of the lung tissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli
Exhalation ventilation muscles
At rest it's passive but with exercise... Internal Intercostals pull ribs down and abdominals push diaphragm up. Decereasing volume of thoracic cavity and increasing presure
presence of air/gas in pleural cavity. Effects the pressure-volume gradient, therefore may collapse a lung. Can be caused by a chest tube being pushed in too far.
Inhalation center, The apneustic center of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus
The portion of Minute ventilation that enters into and mixes with the air in the Alveolar chamber.
Ventilation Factors: Height, Age, Females
Taller = increased volume, Older= decreased capacity (loss of strength, poor posture), Females= 10% less than men
is a reflex triggered to prevent overinflation of the lungs. Pulmonary stretch receptors present in the smooth muscle of the airways respond to excessive stretching of the lung during large inspirations.
Ventilation / Perfusion Ratio
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to pulmonary blood flow = V/Q. Example, 4.2 L of air ventilate alveoli with an average blood flow through the pulmonary capillaries of 5L/Min. V/Q=.8 Liters. VQ increases with exercise.
What can cause a low V/Q
cigarette smoking increases airway resistance. Hyperventilation (rapid shallow breathing), Low temperature
If exercising in heat then placed in a cold environment... what would happen?
Apnea would increase, your temp would lower which would decrease your RR.
Total amount of air that goes in/out of lungs in 1 minute. TV x Frequency, 6,000 ml X 12 breaths/min
What is the difference between minute ventilation & Minute alveolar ventilation?
Minute ventilation does not factor in the dead air to the equation. Minute Alveolar Air does subtract the dead air from the Tidal Volume. Alveolar Air is a better indicator of one's ventilation system b/c alveoli are where gas exchange takes place.
During exercise what happens to your Rate and Volume?
Both increase, total ventilation may increase 30x.
Is Depth more significant than rate? If so, why?
Yes, you are over coming the anatomical dead space with increased depth.
Restrictive pulmonary dysfunction would result in? How is it measured?
Can get air out, not in. Can exhale okay, can't inhale
COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following: The airways and air sacs lose their elastic quality. The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed. The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed (swollen). The airways make more mucus than usual, which tends to clog the airways.
People with COPD/Emphysema have an increased or decreased Residual Volume?
Large RV. The Alveoli have formed blebs (Blebs are abnormal vacuoles in the lungs which may range from about 3 mm to several centimeters in size. Blebs often develop when alveolar walls deteriorate thereby transforming a mass of individual alveoli into one or more blebs.)
Max amount of air expired after max inhalation. Amount used to determine what exercises can be used, amount required to keep you alive.
Functional residual capacity, the volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal tidal expieration.
What would happen to the Spirogram of someone with an Obstructive Pulmonary Disease like emphysema?
The slope would be flat during Forced expiration, the residual volume would be very large creating a Barrel chest.
What would happen to the spirogram of someone who has a restrictive ?
Lung volumes are ALL diminished, slope stays the same but the residual volume is less.
What happens with carbohydrate breakdown Aerobically, and anaerobically?
Aerobically- O2 & H20 result, Anaerobically- Without O2 results in 2 molecules of pyruvic acid which becomes lactic acid.
Required to turn creb cycle. is an organic acid. It is also a ketone, as well as being the simplest alpha-keto acid. The carboxylate (COOH) ion (anion) of pyruvic acid, CH3COCOO-, is known as pyruvate, and is a key intersection in several metabolic pathways. It can be made from glucose through glycolysis, supplies energy to living cells in the citric acid cycle, and can also be converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol
Oxloacetic acid is used for what?
fat breakdwon can only continue in the presence of oxloacetic acid that comes from CHO metabolism
What is required for fats to breakdown?
Aerobic metabolism is required to burn fat. Charbohydrates are required (Glucose).
When should proteins be used in exercise?
anytime exercise lasts over 90 Minutes. Endurance type activity, wound healing.
Three types of energy production
ATP/CP (Immediate), Lactic Acid (Anerobic; Short term), Aerobic (oxygen; long-term)
As intensity increases what happens to the ability of O2 to deliver sufficient O2? Where does the body get its energy from when O2 can't supply the body?
The ability of O2 to deliver sufficient O2 Decreases, therefore the body must get the energy from glycolysis (Lactate)
Since fat metabolism is too slow to meet ATP needs what must you have?
adequate muscle glycogen supplies which comes from carbohydrates
Moderate to heavy aerobic exercise
more carbohydrate used as an energy source, decreased muscle glycogen
Oxygen uptake in first few minutes of exercise
O2 Uptake rises quickly in first few minutes of exercise within about 3-4 minutes it reaches a plateau
Lactic acid at steady state,
is either oxidized or recoverted to glucose in the liver accumulation is minimal
the difference between total O2 actually consumed and the amount that would have been consumed if one went immediately into a steady state. the upward slope of the curve at the onset of exercise. Well trained athletes reach steady state faster
O2 EPOC (Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption)
The higher the O2 deficit and length of plateau phase and peak of O2 needs the longer it takes the EPOC to return to baseline
Transfer of heat due to moving molecules AIR/Water, There is a high heat loss when swimming
taking liquid to the point that it vaporizes, the major physiologic defense against overheating. dependent on ambient temp/ humidity/ surface exposed to environment/convective air currents
Wet-Bulb Globe Index
Takes all factors into consideration, composite measure of effect of environment on exercising subjects.