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How many lobes are in the right lung?


How many lobes are in the left lung?


Anatomical Dead Space

Air doesn't reach the alveoli

Physiological Dead Space

Portion of Alveolar volume with poor ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q)


Rapid shallow breathing. Only gas going through anatomical dead space


Can block the trachea with mucus. Cystic fibrosis (also known as CF, mucovoidosis, or mucoviscidosis) is a genetic disorder known to be an inherited disease of the secretory glands, including the glands that make mucus and sweat.

Hold "cric" pressure

used to insert endotracheal tube, avoid larynx (vocal cords)


When you have gas exchange production of ATP, Must have ATP!

Mechanical ventilator

just delivering air to the patient. Supplying the gas.


can increase physiological dead space, Emphysema is characterized by loss of elasticity (decreased pulmonary compliance) of the lung tissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli

How would you get the best access to the lungs

Have patient lay sideline


Air flow in/out due to pressure gradient

When pressure inside lung is less than atmosphere

Air flows inside

When pressure inside the lung is greater than outside

Air flows out

Boyle's Law

Pressure is inversely proportional to the volume

Ventilation Muscles (inspiratory)

external intercostals, Diaphragm

Exhalation ventilation muscles

At rest it's passive but with exercise... Internal Intercostals pull ribs down and abdominals push diaphragm up. Decereasing volume of thoracic cavity and increasing presure


presence of air/gas in pleural cavity. Effects the pressure-volume gradient, therefore may collapse a lung. Can be caused by a chest tube being pushed in too far.


Blood in the pleural cavity


Inhalation center, The apneustic center of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus


eXhalation center, Limits Depth, Stimulates Expiration.

Minute Ventilation

Breath Rate x Tidal Volume (Br X Tv), Example 6Liters= 12x.5 liters/breath.

What increases your minute ventilation?

either an increase in BR or TV

Alveolar Ventilation

The portion of Minute ventilation that enters into and mixes with the air in the Alveolar chamber.

What would Shallow Breathing do to the alveolar ventilation?

Decreases alveolar ventilation

What would deeper breathing do to alveolar ventilation

Increases alveolar ventilation

Ventilation Factors: Height, Age, Females

Taller = increased volume, Older= decreased capacity (loss of strength, poor posture), Females= 10% less than men

Hering-Breuer Reflex

is a reflex triggered to prevent overinflation of the lungs. Pulmonary stretch receptors present in the smooth muscle of the airways respond to excessive stretching of the lung during large inspirations.

Ventilation / Perfusion Ratio

The ratio of alveolar ventilation to pulmonary blood flow = V/Q. Example, 4.2 L of air ventilate alveoli with an average blood flow through the pulmonary capillaries of 5L/Min. V/Q=.8 Liters. VQ increases with exercise.


Suspension of external breathing, can be voluntarily induced or due to pain

What can cause a low V/Q

cigarette smoking increases airway resistance. Hyperventilation (rapid shallow breathing), Low temperature

What would an Increased Temp do to respiration rate?

Would increase RR

What would your sympathetic nervous system do to RR?

Increase RR

If your BP lowers what would happen to your RR?

Would increase Need more O2

If your BP Raises what would happen to your RR?

Would decrease Need less O2

If exercising in heat then placed in a cold environment... what would happen?

Apnea would increase, your temp would lower which would decrease your RR.

Minute Ventilation

Total amount of air that goes in/out of lungs in 1 minute. TV x Frequency, 6,000 ml X 12 breaths/min

Alveolar air

Tidal volume - Dead air

Minute Alveolar Air Equation

(TV - Dead air) x (Frequency) example: (500ml -150ml) X 12 = 4,200

What is the difference between minute ventilation & Minute alveolar ventilation?

Minute ventilation does not factor in the dead air to the equation. Minute Alveolar Air does subtract the dead air from the Tidal Volume. Alveolar Air is a better indicator of one's ventilation system b/c alveoli are where gas exchange takes place.

During exercise what happens to your Rate and Volume?

Both increase, total ventilation may increase 30x.

Is Depth more significant than rate? If so, why?

Yes, you are over coming the anatomical dead space with increased depth.

Tidal Volume

volume of air in/out with each breath

Inspiratory Reserve

amount inspired above Tidal Volume

Expiratory Reserve

amount expired below Tidal Volume

Residual volume **

the air remaining in the lungs once you've blown all the air out

Forced expiration Volume

Forced expiratory volume (1sec), used to diagnose COPD

Restrictive pulmonary dysfunction would result in? How is it measured?

Can get air out, not in. Can exhale okay, can't inhale

(O)bstructive pulmonary dysfunction would result in?

Can get air into lungs, Not (O)ut.


COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following: The airways and air sacs lose their elastic quality. The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed. The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed (swollen). The airways make more mucus than usual, which tends to clog the airways.

Significant COPD

30% of air is expired

Moderate COPD

50-60% of air is expired

Normal air expired percentage


People with COPD/Emphysema have an increased or decreased Residual Volume?

Large RV. The Alveoli have formed blebs (Blebs are abnormal vacuoles in the lungs which may range from about 3 mm to several centimeters in size. Blebs often develop when alveolar walls deteriorate thereby transforming a mass of individual alveoli into one or more blebs.)

Total Lung Capacity

Amount of air in lung at end of max inhalation

Vital Capacity

Max amount of air expired after max inhalation. Amount used to determine what exercises can be used, amount required to keep you alive.

What effects vital capacity?

Height, position

What would a restrictive disease do to the FRC,TLC,VC,IRV,ERV,RV?

All would lower


Functional residual capacity, the volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal tidal expieration.


Amount of gas inhaled into the lungs during a maximal forced inspiration.

What would happen to the Spirogram of someone with an Obstructive Pulmonary Disease like emphysema?

The slope would be flat during Forced expiration, the residual volume would be very large creating a Barrel chest.

What would happen to the spirogram of someone who has a restrictive ?

Lung volumes are ALL diminished, slope stays the same but the residual volume is less.


The fuel for all human processes, sources come from proteins, fats, carbohydrates


the most important nutrient in terms of health and athletic performance.

What happens with carbohydrate breakdown Aerobically, and anaerobically?

Aerobically- O2 & H20 result, Anaerobically- Without O2 results in 2 molecules of pyruvic acid which becomes lactic acid.

Pyruvic acid

Required to turn creb cycle. is an organic acid. It is also a ketone, as well as being the simplest alpha-keto acid. The carboxylate (COOH) ion (anion) of pyruvic acid, CH3COCOO-, is known as pyruvate, and is a key intersection in several metabolic pathways. It can be made from glucose through glycolysis, supplies energy to living cells in the citric acid cycle, and can also be converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol

Oxloacetic acid is used for what?

fat breakdwon can only continue in the presence of oxloacetic acid that comes from CHO metabolism

What is required for fats to breakdown?

Aerobic metabolism is required to burn fat. Charbohydrates are required (Glucose).


result from over metabolism of fats

Where are proteins metabolized?

Liver, Deaminated, Transaminated

When should proteins be used in exercise?

anytime exercise lasts over 90 Minutes. Endurance type activity, wound healing.


getting glucose from protein sources.

Three types of energy production

ATP/CP (Immediate), Lactic Acid (Anerobic; Short term), Aerobic (oxygen; long-term)

ATP/CP (Immediate)

short duration, High intensity 1-10 seconds

What might be a cause of low O2 supply?

COPD or anemia

What must you have to move the creb cycle?

ATP and Pyruvic acid

Aerobic activity

occurs in mitochondria, results in large amounts of ATP

Muscle glycogen

the next best source of energy

As intensity increases what happens to the ability of O2 to deliver sufficient O2? Where does the body get its energy from when O2 can't supply the body?

The ability of O2 to deliver sufficient O2 Decreases, therefore the body must get the energy from glycolysis (Lactate)

what would Fe be required for?

required for O2 delivery

As intensity increases the Duration must


What type of exercise would anaerobic activity produce


What type of exercise would aerobic activity produce



short supply

Lactic acid comes from what source during exercise?


How does fatigue occur?

Lactic acid build up

Since fat metabolism is too slow to meet ATP needs what must you have?

adequate muscle glycogen supplies which comes from carbohydrates

Long duration even would use ___ as the energy source

fat as the energy source

Ultra events would use ____ as the energy source


Moderate to heavy aerobic exercise

more carbohydrate used as an energy source, decreased muscle glycogen


more effecient energy source than fat

Oxygen uptake in first few minutes of exercise

O2 Uptake rises quickly in first few minutes of exercise within about 3-4 minutes it reaches a plateau

O2 Plateau

O2 demand = O2 Supply creating a steady state

Lactic acid at steady state,

is either oxidized or recoverted to glucose in the liver accumulation is minimal

O2 Deficit

the difference between total O2 actually consumed and the amount that would have been consumed if one went immediately into a steady state. the upward slope of the curve at the onset of exercise. Well trained athletes reach steady state faster

VO2 Max

point where O2 Uptake plateaus and show no further increase

O2 EPOC (Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption)

The higher the O2 deficit and length of plateau phase and peak of O2 needs the longer it takes the EPOC to return to baseline


For every 1 degree increase in Body temp, there is a corresponding 10% increase in metabolism

Radiation heat

Temp of surroundings is higher than body temp


Transfer of heat due to moving molecules AIR/Water, There is a high heat loss when swimming


loss or gain of heat by direct contact with another surface, H20 absorbs heat.


taking liquid to the point that it vaporizes, the major physiologic defense against overheating. dependent on ambient temp/ humidity/ surface exposed to environment/convective air currents

Wet-Bulb Globe Index

Takes all factors into consideration, composite measure of effect of environment on exercising subjects.

Weak rapid pulse, Low BP in upright, dizziness. weakness

Heat exhaustion

No sweating, dry, hot skin

Heat stroke

Vasoconstriction is due to?

Colder temps to keep blood flow central

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