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106 terms

Physiology Quiz #2

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How many lobes are in the right lung?
3
How many lobes are in the left lung?
2
Anatomical Dead Space
Air doesn't reach the alveoli
Physiological Dead Space
Portion of Alveolar volume with poor ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q)
Hyperventilation
Rapid shallow breathing. Only gas going through anatomical dead space
Cysticfibrosis
Can block the trachea with mucus. Cystic fibrosis (also known as CF, mucovoidosis, or mucoviscidosis) is a genetic disorder known to be an inherited disease of the secretory glands, including the glands that make mucus and sweat.
Hold "cric" pressure
used to insert endotracheal tube, avoid larynx (vocal cords)
Respiration
When you have gas exchange production of ATP, Must have ATP!
Mechanical ventilator
just delivering air to the patient. Supplying the gas.
Emphysema
can increase physiological dead space, Emphysema is characterized by loss of elasticity (decreased pulmonary compliance) of the lung tissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli
How would you get the best access to the lungs
Have patient lay sideline
Ventilation
Air flow in/out due to pressure gradient
When pressure inside lung is less than atmosphere
Air flows inside
When pressure inside the lung is greater than outside
Air flows out
Boyle's Law
Pressure is inversely proportional to the volume
Ventilation Muscles (inspiratory)
external intercostals, Diaphragm
Exhalation ventilation muscles
At rest it's passive but with exercise... Internal Intercostals pull ribs down and abdominals push diaphragm up. Decereasing volume of thoracic cavity and increasing presure
Pneumothorax
presence of air/gas in pleural cavity. Effects the pressure-volume gradient, therefore may collapse a lung. Can be caused by a chest tube being pushed in too far.
Hemothorax
Blood in the pleural cavity
ApNeustic
Inhalation center, The apneustic center of the lower pons appears to promote inspiration by stimulation of the I neurons in the medulla oblongata providing a constant stimulus
PneumotaXic
eXhalation center, Limits Depth, Stimulates Expiration.
Minute Ventilation
Breath Rate x Tidal Volume (Br X Tv), Example 6Liters= 12x.5 liters/breath.
What increases your minute ventilation?
either an increase in BR or TV
Alveolar Ventilation
The portion of Minute ventilation that enters into and mixes with the air in the Alveolar chamber.
What would Shallow Breathing do to the alveolar ventilation?
Decreases alveolar ventilation
What would deeper breathing do to alveolar ventilation
Increases alveolar ventilation
Ventilation Factors: Height, Age, Females
Taller = increased volume, Older= decreased capacity (loss of strength, poor posture), Females= 10% less than men
Hering-Breuer Reflex
is a reflex triggered to prevent overinflation of the lungs. Pulmonary stretch receptors present in the smooth muscle of the airways respond to excessive stretching of the lung during large inspirations.
Ventilation / Perfusion Ratio
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to pulmonary blood flow = V/Q. Example, 4.2 L of air ventilate alveoli with an average blood flow through the pulmonary capillaries of 5L/Min. V/Q=.8 Liters. VQ increases with exercise.
Apnea
Suspension of external breathing, can be voluntarily induced or due to pain
What can cause a low V/Q
cigarette smoking increases airway resistance. Hyperventilation (rapid shallow breathing), Low temperature
What would an Increased Temp do to respiration rate?
Would increase RR
What would your sympathetic nervous system do to RR?
Increase RR
If your BP lowers what would happen to your RR?
Would increase Need more O2
If your BP Raises what would happen to your RR?
Would decrease Need less O2
If exercising in heat then placed in a cold environment... what would happen?
Apnea would increase, your temp would lower which would decrease your RR.
Minute Ventilation
Total amount of air that goes in/out of lungs in 1 minute. TV x Frequency, 6,000 ml X 12 breaths/min
Alveolar air
Tidal volume - Dead air
Minute Alveolar Air Equation
(TV - Dead air) x (Frequency) example: (500ml -150ml) X 12 = 4,200
What is the difference between minute ventilation & Minute alveolar ventilation?
Minute ventilation does not factor in the dead air to the equation. Minute Alveolar Air does subtract the dead air from the Tidal Volume. Alveolar Air is a better indicator of one's ventilation system b/c alveoli are where gas exchange takes place.
During exercise what happens to your Rate and Volume?
Both increase, total ventilation may increase 30x.
Is Depth more significant than rate? If so, why?
Yes, you are over coming the anatomical dead space with increased depth.
Tidal Volume
volume of air in/out with each breath
Inspiratory Reserve
amount inspired above Tidal Volume
Expiratory Reserve
amount expired below Tidal Volume
Residual volume **
the air remaining in the lungs once you've blown all the air out
Forced expiration Volume
Forced expiratory volume (1sec), used to diagnose COPD
Restrictive pulmonary dysfunction would result in? How is it measured?
Can get air out, not in. Can exhale okay, can't inhale
(O)bstructive pulmonary dysfunction would result in?
Can get air into lungs, Not (O)ut.
COPD
COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following: The airways and air sacs lose their elastic quality. The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed. The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed (swollen). The airways make more mucus than usual, which tends to clog the airways.
Significant COPD
30% of air is expired
Moderate COPD
50-60% of air is expired
Normal air expired percentage
80-85%
People with COPD/Emphysema have an increased or decreased Residual Volume?
Large RV. The Alveoli have formed blebs (Blebs are abnormal vacuoles in the lungs which may range from about 3 mm to several centimeters in size. Blebs often develop when alveolar walls deteriorate thereby transforming a mass of individual alveoli into one or more blebs.)
Total Lung Capacity
Amount of air in lung at end of max inhalation
Vital Capacity
Max amount of air expired after max inhalation. Amount used to determine what exercises can be used, amount required to keep you alive.
What effects vital capacity?
Height, position
What would a restrictive disease do to the FRC,TLC,VC,IRV,ERV,RV?
All would lower
FRC
Functional residual capacity, the volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal tidal expieration.
IRV
Amount of gas inhaled into the lungs during a maximal forced inspiration.
What would happen to the Spirogram of someone with an Obstructive Pulmonary Disease like emphysema?
The slope would be flat during Forced expiration, the residual volume would be very large creating a Barrel chest.
What would happen to the spirogram of someone who has a restrictive ?
Lung volumes are ALL diminished, slope stays the same but the residual volume is less.
ATP
The fuel for all human processes, sources come from proteins, fats, carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
the most important nutrient in terms of health and athletic performance.
What happens with carbohydrate breakdown Aerobically, and anaerobically?
Aerobically- O2 & H20 result, Anaerobically- Without O2 results in 2 molecules of pyruvic acid which becomes lactic acid.
Pyruvic acid
Required to turn creb cycle. is an organic acid. It is also a ketone, as well as being the simplest alpha-keto acid. The carboxylate (COOH) ion (anion) of pyruvic acid, CH3COCOO-, is known as pyruvate, and is a key intersection in several metabolic pathways. It can be made from glucose through glycolysis, supplies energy to living cells in the citric acid cycle, and can also be converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol
Oxloacetic acid is used for what?
fat breakdwon can only continue in the presence of oxloacetic acid that comes from CHO metabolism
What is required for fats to breakdown?
Aerobic metabolism is required to burn fat. Charbohydrates are required (Glucose).
Ketones
result from over metabolism of fats
Where are proteins metabolized?
Liver, Deaminated, Transaminated
When should proteins be used in exercise?
anytime exercise lasts over 90 Minutes. Endurance type activity, wound healing.
Gluconeogenesis
getting glucose from protein sources.
Three types of energy production
ATP/CP (Immediate), Lactic Acid (Anerobic; Short term), Aerobic (oxygen; long-term)
ATP/CP (Immediate)
short duration, High intensity 1-10 seconds
What might be a cause of low O2 supply?
COPD or anemia
What must you have to move the creb cycle?
ATP and Pyruvic acid
Aerobic activity
occurs in mitochondria, results in large amounts of ATP
Muscle glycogen
the next best source of energy
As intensity increases what happens to the ability of O2 to deliver sufficient O2? Where does the body get its energy from when O2 can't supply the body?
The ability of O2 to deliver sufficient O2 Decreases, therefore the body must get the energy from glycolysis (Lactate)
what would Fe be required for?
required for O2 delivery
As intensity increases the Duration must
decrease
What type of exercise would anaerobic activity produce
Power
What type of exercise would aerobic activity produce
aerobic
ATP/PC
short supply
Lactic acid comes from what source during exercise?
MUST COME FROM CARBS
How does fatigue occur?
Lactic acid build up
Since fat metabolism is too slow to meet ATP needs what must you have?
adequate muscle glycogen supplies which comes from carbohydrates
Long duration even would use ___ as the energy source
fat as the energy source
Ultra events would use ____ as the energy source
protein
Moderate to heavy aerobic exercise
more carbohydrate used as an energy source, decreased muscle glycogen
CHO
more effecient energy source than fat
Oxygen uptake in first few minutes of exercise
O2 Uptake rises quickly in first few minutes of exercise within about 3-4 minutes it reaches a plateau
O2 Plateau
O2 demand = O2 Supply creating a steady state
Lactic acid at steady state,
is either oxidized or recoverted to glucose in the liver accumulation is minimal
O2 Deficit
the difference between total O2 actually consumed and the amount that would have been consumed if one went immediately into a steady state. the upward slope of the curve at the onset of exercise. Well trained athletes reach steady state faster
VO2 Max
point where O2 Uptake plateaus and show no further increase
O2 EPOC (Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption)
The higher the O2 deficit and length of plateau phase and peak of O2 needs the longer it takes the EPOC to return to baseline
Q10
For every 1 degree increase in Body temp, there is a corresponding 10% increase in metabolism
Radiation heat
Temp of surroundings is higher than body temp
Convection
Transfer of heat due to moving molecules AIR/Water, There is a high heat loss when swimming
Conduction
loss or gain of heat by direct contact with another surface, H20 absorbs heat.
Evaporation
taking liquid to the point that it vaporizes, the major physiologic defense against overheating. dependent on ambient temp/ humidity/ surface exposed to environment/convective air currents
Wet-Bulb Globe Index
Takes all factors into consideration, composite measure of effect of environment on exercising subjects.
Weak rapid pulse, Low BP in upright, dizziness. weakness
Heat exhaustion
No sweating, dry, hot skin
Heat stroke
Vasoconstriction is due to?
Colder temps to keep blood flow central