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Middle School Math Vocabulary
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Moving with Math Books 1 & 2 - VOCABULARY
Terms in this set (65)
Associative (grouping) Property
the order in which you add or multiply THREE OR MORE numbers does not change the outcome. Example: a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c
Common Factor
a number that is a factor of two or more numbers
Commutative (order) Property
the order in which you add or multiply two numbers does not change the outcome. Example: a
b=b
a
Composite Number
a whole number that is exactly divisible by more than two factors
Congruent
figures that have the same size and shape
Denominator
the part of a fraction below the line, which tells how many equal parts there are in the whole
Difference
the result of subtraction
Distributive Property
the product of a number and the sum of two numbers is equal to the sum of the two products. Example: a
(b+c) = (a
b)+(a*c)
Divisible
when you divide, the remainder is zero
Equivalent
equal in value, but in a different form
Equivalent Fractions
two or more fractions that represent the same number
Estimate
to find an answer that is close to the exact answer
Expanded Form
a way to write numbers that shows the value of each digit
Exponent
a number that indicates how many times the base appears as a factor
Exponential Form
a symbolic way of showing how many times a number is used as a factor
Factor
one of two or more numbers or expressions that are multiplied to form a product
Fraction
a number used to name a part of the group or part of a whole
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
the greatest number that divides evenly into two or more numbers
Improper Fraction
a fraction with its numerator equal to or greater than its denominator
Integers
the set of numbers containing zero, the natural numbers, and their opposites
Leading Digit
the digit farthest to the left, having the greatest value
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
the smallest number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers
Like Fractions
fractions that have the same denominator
Lowest Terms (or Simplest Form)
when the numerator and denominator of a fraction have no common factors other than 1
Mean
average; calculated by dividing the number of items in a set by the sum of those numbers
Median
the MIDDLE number when the data is ordered from least to greatest
Mixed Number
a number written as a whole number and a fraction
Mode
the number(s) that occurs the MOST in a set of data
Multiple
the product of that number and any whole number
Natural Numbers
the counting numbers
Number Line
a line with equal distances marked off to represent numbers
Numerator
the number written above the fraction line that tells how many equal parts of the whole are being counted
Place Value
a system of numeration in which the value of a digit depends on its position in the numeral
Prime Factorization
expressing a composite number as the product of its prime factors
Prime Number
a whole number greater than one that has only two factors, 1 and itself
Product
the result of multiplication
Proper Fraction
a fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator
Quotient
the result of division
Range
the difference between the greatest number and the least numbers in a set of data
Ratio
a comparison of two numbers using division
Round
to estimate a number by replacing it with a number expressed to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, and so on
Simplify
to divide the numerator and denominator of a fraction by the greatest common factor
Standard Form
a number written with one digit for each place value
Sum
the result of addition
Term
each number in a sequence or pattern
Unlike Fractions
fractions that have different denominators
Variable
a symbol such as a box or a letter used to represent an unknown value
Whole Numbers
set of natural numbers and zero
Rational Numbers
set of all numbers that can be written as the ratio of two integers with a non-zero denominator
Real Numbers
set of all rational and irrational numbers
Irrational Numbers
set of all numbers that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers
Perimeter
the distance around a figure
Area
the number of square units needed to cover a figure
Volume
the amount of cubic units needed to fill a three-dimensional object
Surface Area
the sum of the area of all faces of an object
Complementary Angles
two angles whose sum is equal to 90 degrees
Supplementary Angles
two angles whose sum is equal to 180 degrees
Vertical Angles
two angles opposite one another that share a vertex
Adjacent Angles
angles that share a common side and a common vertex
Similar Figures
two figures where the corresponding angles are congruent and the corresponding sides are proportional
Congruent Figures
figures that are exactly the same shape and size
Pythagorean Theorem
the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the square of the other two sides
Equation
a mathematical sentence stating that two expressions are equal
Independent Variable
the input (x) values or domain
Dependent Variable
the output (y) values or range
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