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deep to fibrous pericardium
parietal=lines internal surface of fibrous pericardium
visceral=epicardium=covers external surface fo heart
same as visceral epicardium
outermost layter, simple squamous epithelium and loose areolar CT
bulk of heart; cardiac muscle
arranged in spiral bundles, causes a wringing effect when heart contracts
simple squamous epithelium
lines heart chambers, continues with blood vessels to become endothelium
Seperation from Atrium from Ventricle
Externally: Coronary Sulcus seperates each atrium from its ventricle
Internally: Atrioventricle (AV) vavle
the pulmonary capillaries surround the alveoli and includes a basement membrane
-blood in capillaries becomes oxygenated as it passes by alveoli
-O2 from alveoli into caps.
-CO2 diffuses from caps into aveoli
simple squamous epithelium
Pathway of Blood
Right Atrium > Tricupsid Valve > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Semilunar Valve > Pulmonary Trunk > L and R Pulmonary arteries > Pulmonary Capillaries (lungs) > Pulmonary Veins (oxygenated) > Left Atrium > Bicuspid valve > Left Ventricle > Aortic Semilunar Valve > Aorta > Systemic Ciculation > RA
Atrioventricular (AV): tricuspid and bicuspid seperates atrium from ventricle
semilunar (SL): pulmonary (R) and aortic (L) sperate ventricle from blood vessel
Open when ventricles are relaxed and filling with blood
Closed when ventricles contract to prevent backflow
Closed as ventricles filling with blood (relaxed)
Open as ventricles contract to allow ejection of blood
heart requires 5% of the blood supply to nourish itself
coronary arteries and cardiac veins
saphenous vein from leg and cut into grafts-connect from the aorta to the coronary arteries to bypass the blockage
Right and left coronary arteries arise from base of aorta
encircle heart in coronary sulci
anastomoses: junctions of vessels allow collateral routes for blood flow in case of blockage.
blockage may require bypass surgery
cells are highly interdependent
gap junctions at intercalated discs
short, fat branched cells
gap junctions-ions pass
desmosomes-keep cells from separating as muscle contracts
1%, don't contract
fire action potentials that spread thru heart via gap junctions
localized along intrinsic conduction system that coordinates contraction of heart chambers
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