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TED - How young blood might reverse aging
Terms in this set (31)
Professor of neurology at Stanford, Tony Wyss-Coray oversees an eponymous lab which studies immune and injury responses in aging and neurodegeneration.
血浆 90% waste
consisting mainly of water, but also containing dissolved CO2, urea, dissolved nutrients and hormones,sugars, lipids, metabolic waste products, amino acids, hormones, and vitamins; dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, mineral ions, hormones;
The plasma also distributes heat around the body.
But what if there was something to it? What if there was something to this Fountain of Youth?
I will share an absolutely amazing development in aging research that could revolutionize the way we think about aging and how we may treat age-related diseases in the future
revolutionize the way we think about
Parabiosis is a technique in which two living animals are joined together surgically and develop a single, shared circulatory system. For a good review of the technique, look at Conboy and Rando, 2013.
an experimental technique for determining whether a certain physiological phenomenon is regulated by a hormone
But it's scary to see how all these curves go south. And as we get older, diseases such as Alzheimer's and others may develop.
Special junctions where neurons communicate with other neurons and cells;
tiny gaps between neurons where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch
One big problem we have -- to try to understand how this really works at a very molecular, mechanistic level -- is that we can't study the brains in detail, in living people.
at a very molecular, mechanistic level
And by and large, factors that we know are required for the development of tissues, for the maintenance of tissues -- they start to decrease as we get older, while factors involved in repair, in injury and in inflammation -- they increase as we get older.
by and large
by and large
On the whole; generally speaking
And using statistical or bioinformatics programs, we could try to discover those factors that best predict age -- in a way, back-calculate the relative age of a person.
The collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using computers especially as applied in molecular genetics and genomics
Is this a person who is maybe at a reduced risk to develop an age-related disease and will have a long life -- will live to 100 or more?
at a reduced risk
So what I'm going to show you now is very remarkable and it suggests that these factors can actually modulate the age of a tissue. And that's where we come back to this model called parabiosis.
modulate the age of a tissue
And for this purpose, we use young mice that are an equivalency of 20-year-old people,and old mice that are roughly 65 years old in human years.
an equivalency of
Instead, we've reasoned, then, that it must be the soluble factors, so we could collect simply the soluble fraction of blood which is called plasma, and inject either young plasma or old plasma into these mice,and we could reproduce these rejuvenating effects, but what we could also do now is we could do memory tests with mice.
soluble factors (plasma)
hormone like protein that regulate IR
-one escape hole
If you mount an object on something, you fix it there firmly;安装
Her husband mounts the work on velour paper and makes the frame.
In stark contrast, this mouse here is a sibling of the same age, but it was treated with young human plasma for three weeks, with small injections every three days.
in start contrast
it also suggests that there is something not only in young mouse plasma, but in young human plasma that has the capacity to help this old brain.
1. ability to perform or produce;
Her mental capacity and temperament are as remarkable as his.
可塑的：capable of being shaped；易控制的：capable of being controlle;
So to summarize, we find the old mouse, and its brain in particular, are malleable;
young enough to be malleable;
Silver is the most malleable of all metals. 延展性最好的
set in stone
They're not set in stone; we can actually change them. It can be rejuvenated.
Remember, no decision is set in stone.
A customary unit of capacity equals to 2 cups.
And if we can turn it back on a little bit, maybe we can find the factors that are mediating these effects, we can produce these factors synthetically and we can treat diseases of aging, such as Alzheimer's disease or other dementias.
mediate these effects;
A slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes
Stem-cell scientists led by Dr. John Dick have discovered a completely new view of how human blood is made, upending conventional dogma from the1960s.
upend conventional dogma
set or turn (something) on its end or upside down:
Kitty upended her purse, dumping out all her money ;
(as adj. upended) : an upended box.
(adj.) aggressively and arrogantly certain about unproved principles ;
His dogmatic claim that men were better than women at fixing appliances angered everyone.
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