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Arts and Humanities
Cold War Questions/Answers 1957-69
Terms in this set (15)
Briefly explain the key features of the refugee problem in Berlin in the late 1950s. (6)
- Damage to eastern Bloc's image. Claimed to be a 'Workers Paradise'.
- Required a radical solution. Described by Khrushchev as a 'fishbone in my throat'
Briefly explain why Berlin was a Cold War flashpoint 1957-63. (6)
- The staked were so high. The West made West Berlin a glittering outpost of capitalism and nearly 3 million left the East through Berlin.
- Khruschev was willing to take drastic action, increasing tension drastically.
Explain why the Berlin Wall was built in 1961 (12)
-Khrushchev believed Kennedy was weak, who would not resist the building of the wall.
- End of the thaw. Tension had been rising since the Hungarian revolt, so a crisis over Berlin was likely.
- To stop the flow of refugees.
Briefly explain the key features of the Bay of Pigs invasion 1961. (6)
- Americans wanted to remove Castro from power, but did not want to admit involvement.
- It drove Castro into the arms of the Soviets.
Briefly explain the key features of the Cuban Missile Crisis. (6)
- Caused by Khrushchev's decision to place nuclear weapons on Cuba.
- It nearly caused a nuclear war. Tension was at the highest level of the Cold War.
Explain why Cuba developed close relations with the Soviet Union in the years 1959-62. (12)
- Similar ideology following the Cuban Revolution of 1959.
- Khrushchev offered nuclear weapons, and Castro wanted protection from US invasion.
- The USSR and Cuba had a common enemy: the USA, as they had propped up Batista.
Explain why relations between the Soviet Union and the USA changed in 1962. (12)
- The USSR placed nuclear missiles on Cuba, only 90 miles form Florida.
- Kennedy's reaction: he publicly demanded the removal of the missiles & and raised the stakes by order the navy to fire if the Soviet ships crossed the line.
- Khrushchev's brinkmanship: this dangerous policy brought the world the closest to the edge of a nuclear war in the whole Cold War.
Explain why relations between the Soviet Union and the USA changed in the years 1957 to 1962. (12)
- U2 Crisis 1960: A US spy plane was shot down over Russia, providing an excuse for Khrushchev to break off relations.
- Berlin: Khrushchev built a wall in 1961 to stop the flow of refugees to the West.
-Cuban Missile Crisis 1962: Soviets install nuclear weapons on Cuba.
Briefly explain the key features of the Brezhnev Doctrine. (6)
- Introduced in response to the Prague Spring of 1968.
- Stated that the USSR had the right to invade and country of the Eastern Bloc that showed disloyalty.
Briefly explain the key features of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. (6)
- It put into practise the Brezhnev doctrine: crushing the revolt.
- Americans expressed outrage, although the gave no military support to the Czechs.
Briefly explain the key features of the re-establishment of Soviet control over Czechoslovakia after the Prague Spring 1968. (6)
- The Brezhnev doctrine was used for the first time to stop the threat to the East.
- Resistance was limited, and the US was unwilling to get involved due to Vietnam.
Explain the reasons for the Prague Spring in 1968 (12)
- Dubcek believed that if he did not try to leave the Warsaw pact, the USSR would not intervene.
- There was a demand for more economic freedom, to produce more consumer goods.
- Political reform was wanted, as there was much resentment against Novotny that had been building since 1948.
Explain why Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968. (12)
- There was a calculation that the US would not try to stop them.
- Brezhnev could not tolerate the reforms suggested by Dubcek in the Prague Spring.
- The Brezhnev Doctrine, which said the USSR would invade any disloyal country.
Explain why relations between the Soviet Union and the USA changed in the years 1957-69. (12)
- The Prague Spring: the US condemned the innovation, but did little else.
- The building of the Berlin Wall 1961: when Kennedy refused to withdraw from West Berlin, relations broke down.
- The Cuban Missile Crisis: this brought relations to their lowest point.
Explain why relations between the Soviet Union and the USA changed in the years 1963-69. (12)
- The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968: Dubcek's uprising was crushed.
- The Vietnam war: A proxy war against the USA, fought on a larger scale than any other war in the 1960s.
- The continuing nuclear arms race: despite efforts to avoid another Cuban Missile Crisis.
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