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is the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is.

verbal irony

The contrast between what is said and what is actually meant.

situational irony

- This refers to a happening that is the opposite of what is expected or intended.

dramatic irony

- This occurs when the audience or reader knows more than the characters know.


-is one kind of irony;
-it is praise which is really an insult;
-sarcasm generally involves malice, the desire to put someone down, e.g., "This is my brilliant son, who failed out of college.


-is making fun of something
-is the exposure of the vices or follies of an individual, a group, an institution, -an idea, a society, etc., usually with a view to correcting it. Satirists frequently use irony.


a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.


Use of a simple object to stand for a larger concept or idea.
• peace - dove, olive branch, victory sign.
• United States - Uncle Sam, flag, stars and stripes, shield.
• Democrats - donkey.
• Republicans - elephant.
• money - dollar bill or dollar sign.


a reference to a famous or important person, place, thing, or work of literature


Comparison between two unlike things that share a common characteristic


is an obvious and unrealistic exaggeration:
- "He was frightened out of his wits."

exaggeration in cartoons

Overdo the physical characteristics of people or things in order to make a point.
Sometimes cartoonists overdo, or exaggerate, the physical characteristics of people or things in order to make a point.


exaggerating a physical feature or habit: big nose, bushy eyebrows, large ears, baldness.


is the opposite of hyperbole: "It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain." —J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye
the representation of something as less than it really is, for ironic effect.
Example: The government needs to address the small problem of poverty.


Identify an object or person to make it clear exactly what it stands for
• Cartoonists often label objects or people to make it clear exactly what they stand for.
• Watch out for the different labels that appear in a cartoon, and ask yourself why the cartoonist chose to label that particular person or object.
• Does the label make the meaning of the object more clear?


A pun is a variety of a usually humorous play on words involving
-the multiple meanings of an expression, or
-two expressions that sound similar.

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