Had a rich oral tradition of songs and legends. Had no written language.
Most western Europeans were living in CONSTANT danger!
Charlemagne Impact & Fall
Quickly seized control of the entire kingdom. Imposing figure. Secretary was a monk. Built an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome.
Him and Charles Martels' son were both crowned by the pope. Converts to Christianity. creates an alliance with the pope. Powerful Partnership Church now supports his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples enabling him to unify the Frankish kingdom of Gaul. Carolingians.
Pepin The Short
Charles Martels' son. Died in 768. Left a greatly strengthened Frankish kingdom to his two sons, Charles, and Carloman. King by grace of God. Carolingians
His son=Pepin The Short. Major Domo. Carolingians
Cities were abandoned and population centers
Worldly Power involved in politics. Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.
Small kingdoms replace Roman Provinces. Borders of these small kingdoms constantly in flux from warfare.
Germanic People Held Power Leader=Clovis Had sufficient unity to survive into the Middle Ages.
Most powerful person.
A political in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
A person who controlled land and could therefore grant estates to vassals.
The person receiving a fief.
People who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.
In medieval Europe, an armored warrior who fought on horseback.
Code of Chivalry
A complex set of ideals.
An estate granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal system in medieval Europe.
A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject.
Poet-musicians at the castles and courts of Europe.
No $$$ exchanged. Obligations based on customs to what had been done in the past. Everything required to sustain life. Produced and consumed right on manor with possible exceptions of salt and iron. Self-sufficent. In return for use of land, serfs had certain specific obligations of nobles who owned manor. Ex: Serfs had to work one or two days a week for the lord.