26 terms

Chapter 17 Sapling

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What RNA sequence is produced during transcription of the following DNA sequence?
3\' GACTACTCG 5\'
CUGAUGAGC
Transcription description
Acts on only one strand
Catalyzed by RNA polymerase
Localized in the nucleus in Eukaryotes
Replication Description
Catalyzed by DNA polymerase
RNA primase is required
Localized in the nucleus in Eukaryotes
DNA transcription steps
1. RNA polymerase binds to the DNA strand upstream from a gene
2. RNA bases are paired with the DNA bases on the template strand by RNA polymerase
3. RNA polymerase releases the RNA strand, and they both leave the DNA strand
Initiation step of transcription
The RNA polymerase binds to the group of transcription factors at the promoter
The DNA double helix unwinds, and RNA synthesis begins
Elongation step of transcription
The RNA polymerase traverses the DNA template, adding complementary base pairs in the 5' to 3' direction
The newly transcribed RNA transcript is proofread for errors
Termination step of transcription
The RNA polymerase detaches from the DNA
The RNA polymerase stops adding base pairs when it reaches a certain DNA sequence that signals the end of the gene
The RNA transcript is release
What happens during the termination stop of DNA transcription?
The mRNA detaches from the RNA polymerase as the RNA polymerase leaves the DNA strand
Statement that describes the function of the sigma factor in prokaryotic transcription
It facilitates the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter to initiate transcription
What is a promotor sequence?
The region of DNA that is the initial binding site of RNA polymerase during treanscription
Description of RNA processing
mRNA modifications such as additions of a 5' cap and 3' poly-A-tail and removal of introns
Intron
A portion of a DNA sequence that is removed from pre-mRNA and not expressed in the protein
5' Cap
an altered guanine nucleotide added to the front of pre-mRNA
A correct statement about RNA splicing
Only coding exons are pliced together to make finished mRNA
mRNA
Carries DNA's protein-building-instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
Read as codons, nucleotide triplets that indicate specific amino acids
Composed of ribonucleic acid
In eukaryotes can exist outside the nucleus
rRNA
Acts as an enzyme for peptide synthesis
Composed of ribonucleic acid
In eukaryotes can exist outside the nucleus
tRNA
Delivers amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
Has a anticodon that interacts with a specific codon from another molecular
Composed of ribonucleic acid
In eukaryotes can exist outside the nucleus
rRNA
Ribonucleotides that assemble proteins into three dimensional complexes on which polypeptide chains are produced
Transcription
Occurs in the nucleus
Builds strands of mRNA
Translation
Occurs in ribosomes
Builds a protein
Involves tRNA
Translation events
1. The tRNA molecules that contributed amino acids to the protein chain leave the ribosome
2. The ribosome adds a new amino acid to the growing polypeptide
3. A codon on the mRNA strand binds with the complementary anticodon on a tRNA molecule carrying an amino acid.
4. The mRNA strand binds with the smaller subunit of the ribosome, which moves along the mRNA
Which of the following events occur during eukaryotic translation initiation?
The small ribosomal subunit binds with a specific tRNA to the mRNA and scans for a start codon
Which of the following events occur during eukaryotic translation elongation?
A tRNA binds a codon and the ribosome adds amino acids from each tRNA to the polypeptide chain.
Which of the following events occur during eukaryotic translation termination?
The ribosome dissociates from the mRNA after the stop codon is recognized by a protein
Prokaryotic Translation
Translation starts once the 5' end of the mRNA detaches from the DNA
Only free-floating ribosomes in the cytoplasm are involved
The entire RNA transcript is used without any modifications.
Eukaryotic Translation
Introns are removed from pre-mRNA before ribosomes can use the mRNA.
Mature mRNA has a cap on one end and a poly-A-tail on the other end.
Ribosomes may be attached to the ER or free in the cell cytoplasm.
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