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339 terms

Medical Terminology

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word root
the foundation of a medical term and contains its primary meaning (ex. dermatos and cutane both are roots meaning skin)
combining form
when a root word is combined with a vowel (gastr/o) = means stomach
suffix
word element placed at the end of a word that changes the meaning of the word (tonsill/itis and tonsil/ectomy)
skin
dermatos (Gr); Word root=dermat
curtis (L); Word root=cutane
dermat/itis
inflammation of the skin
cutane/ous
pertaining to the skin
kindney
nephros (Gr); Word root=nephr
rênes (L); Word root=ren
nephr/oma
tumor of the kidney
ren/al
pertains to the kidney
Mouth
stomatos (Gr); Word root=stomat
oris (L)=or
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
oral
pertaining to the mouth
erythr/o (word root+vowel = combining form)
red
gastr/o
stomach
hepat/o
liver
immun/o
immune, immunity, safe
nephr/o
kidney
oste/o
bone
-itis
inflammation (suffix)
-megaly
enlargement (suffix)
-oma
tumor (suffix)
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastromegaly
enlargement of the stomach
gastroma
tumor of the stomach
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
prefix
word element attached to the beginning of a word or word root that changes the meaning of the word. Usually indicates a number, time, position, direction or negation.
an
without, not (prefix)
hyper-
excessive, above normal (prefix)
intra-
in, within (prefix)
para-
near, beside, beyond (prefix)
poly-
many, much (prefix)
esthes
feeling (word root)
therm
heat (word root)
muscul
muscle (word root)
nas
nose (word root)
ur
urine (word root)
-ia
condition (suffix)
-ar
pertaining to (suffix)
anesthesia
condition of not feeling
hyperthermia
condition of excessive heat
intramuscular
pertaining to within the muscle
paranasal
pertaining to (area) near the nose
polyuria
condition of much urine
gastroenteritis
Gastro = stomach
enter=intestine
itis=inflammation
inflammation of the stomach and intestine
hepat/itis (word root/suffix)
inflammation of the liver
hepat/o-cyte (combining form/suffix)
liver cell
oste/o+chonder+itis=osteochondritis
inflammation of bone and cartilage
(combining form+word root+suffix)
The four elements used to form words are:
root, combining form, suffix and prefix
A root is the main part or foundation of a word. In the words arthritis, arthroma and arthoscope, the root is
arthr
A combining vowel is usually an
O
A word root links a suffix that begins with a
vowel
A combining form links multiple roots to
each other
A combining form links a suffix that begins with a
consonant
To define a medical term:
1. Define the suffix or the end of the word
2. The first part of the word
3. Define the middle part of the word.
In the term intramuscular, what is the prefix?
intra
underline the word root: splen/o
splen/o =part before the O
What is the word root: hepatoma
hepa
What is the word root: muscular
muscu
What is the word root: gastria
gastr
What is the word root:osteoma
oste
These are combining forms:
hepat/o; oste/o/arthr; cholangi/o
Word root: nephritis
nephr
Word root: arthrodesis
arthrodesis
Word root: dermatitis
dermat
Word root: gastrectomy
gastr
Word root: chrondritis
chrond
Suffix: thoracotomy
-tomy
Suffix: gastroscope
-scope
Suffix: tonsillitis
-itis
Suffix: gastroma
-oma
Suffix: tonsillectomy
-ectomy
Prefix: anesthesia
-an
Prefix: hyperthermia
-hyper
Prefix: intramuscular
-intra
Prefix: paranasal
-para
Prefix: polyuria
-poly
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney(s)
gastrectomy
excision of the stomach
osteoma
tumor of bone
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
arthr/itis
Word root links a suffix that begins with a vowel
scler/osis
Word root links a suffix that begins with a vowel
arthr/o/centesis
Combining Form links a suffix that begins with a consonant
colon/o/scope
Combining Form links a suffix that begins with a consonant
chronr/itis
Word root links a suffix that begins with a vowel
chrondr/oma
Word root links a suffix that begins with a vowel
oste/o/chondr/itis
Combining Form links multiple roots to each other. This rule holds true even if the next word root begins with a vowel. Word root links a suffix that beings with a vowel.
muscul/ar
Word root links a suffix that begins with a vowel
oste/o/arthr/itis
Combining Form links multiple roots to each other. This rule holds true even if the next word root begins with a vowel. Word root links a suffix that beings with a vowel.
gastr (word root)
stomach
-itis (suffix)
inflammation
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
arthr (word root)
joint
arthritis
inflammation of a joint
hemat (word root)
blood
-emsis (suffix)
vomiting
hematemsis
vomiting of blood
gastr/o + -dynia (stomach) (pain)
gastrodynia - pain in the stomach
hemat/o + -logy (blood) (study of)
hematology - study of blood
arthro/o + -centesis (joint) (surgical procedure)
arthrocentesis - surgical procedure of a joint
gastr/o + -enter + -itis (stomach cf) (intestine wr) (inflammation s)
gastroenteritis -inflammation of stomach and intestine
osteo/o + arthr + -itis (bone cf) (joint wr) (inflammation s)
inflammation of bone and joint)
encephal/o + mening + itis (brain cf) (meninges wr) (inflammation s)
encephalomeningitis - inflammation of brain and meninges
Meninges
The three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
-centesis (s)
surgical procedure
(arthrocentesis - puncture of a joint space with a needed and the withdrawal of a needle)
-clasis (s)
to break, surgical fracture
(osteoclasis-surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity)
-desis (s)
binding, fixation of a bone or joint
(arthrodesis - surgical procedure to fuse bones across the joint in an unstable joint)
-ectomy (s)
excision, removal
(appendectomy - excision of the appendix)
-lysis (s)
separation, destruction, loosening
(thrombolysis - destruction of a blood clot, usually thru drug therapy)
-pexy (s)
fixation (of an organ)
(mastopexy-surgery to affix sagging breasts to more elevated position)
-plasty (s)
surgical repair
(rhinoplasty-surgical repair of nose)
-rrhaphy (s)
suture
(myorrhapy -suture of a muscle)
-stomy (s)
forming an opening
(tracheostomy - forming an opening into the trachea to bypass an obstructed airway)
-tome (s)
instrument to cut
(osteotome - instrument to cut bone)
-tomy (s)
incision
(tracheotomy - incision through the neck into the trachea)
-tripsy (s)
crushing
(lithotripsy-surgical procedure for eliminating a stone in the kidney, urether, bladder or gallbladder)
-gram (s)
recording, writing
(electrocardiogram-record of the electrical activity of the heart)
-graph (s)
instrument for recording
(cardiograph - instrument for recording electrical activity of the heart)
-graphy (s)
process of recording
(angiography - process of recording blood vessels)
-meter
instrument for measuring
(pelvimeter-instrument for measuring the pelvis)
-metry
act of measuring
(pelvimetry-act of process of measuring the dimension of the pelvis)
-scope (s)
instrument for examining
(endoscope - instrument for examining within)
-scopy (s)
visual examination
(endoscopy - visual examination within, using specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope)
-alga (s)
pain
(neuralgia - pain of a nerve)
-dynia (s)
otodynia -pain in the ear
-cele
hernia, swelling
hepatocele
hernia of the liver
-ectasis
dilation, expansion
(bronchiectasis- dilation of expansion of one or more bronchi)
-endema
swelling
lymphedema
swelling and accumulation of tissue fluid (lymph)
-emesis
vomiting
hyperemesis
excessive vomiting
hyper-
excessive, above normal
-gen
forming, producing origin
carcinogen
forming, producing cancer
carcinogenesis
forming or producing cancer
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
cholelithiasis - abnormal condition of gallstones in the gallbladder
-lith
stone, calculus
(cholelith - gallstone)
-malacia
softening
(chrondromalacia - softening of the articular cartilage, usually involving the patella)
-megaly
enlargement
(cardiomegaly - enlargement of the heart)
-oma
tumor
(neuroma - tumor composed of nerve tissue)
-osis
abnormal condition; increase - used primarily with blood cells
(cyanosis - dark blue or purple discoloration of the skin and mucous membrane)
-pathy
disease
(myopathy - disease of muscle)
-penia
decrease, deficiency
(erythropenia - decrease in red blood cells)
-phagia
eating, swallowing
(dysphagia - inability or difficulty in swallowing)
-phasia
speech
(aphasia - absence of impairment of speech)
-phobia
fear
(hemophobia - fear of blood)
-plasia
formation, growth
(dysplasia - abnormal formation of growth of cells, tissues or organs)
-plasm
formation, growth
(neoplasm - new tissue growth)
-plegia
paralysis
(hemiplegia - paralysis of one side of the body)
-ptosis
prolapse, downward displacement
(blepharoptosis - drooping of the upper eyelid)
-rrhage
bursting forth (0f)
(hemorrhage- bursting forth of blood, large loss of blood within a short period, internally or externally)
-rrhagia
bursting forth (of)
-menorrhagia - profuse discharge of blood during menstruation
-rrhea
discharge, flow
(diarrhea)
-rrhexis
rupture
(artheriorrhexia - rupture of an artery)
-scherosis
abnormal condition of hardening
(arteriosclerosis - abnormal condition of the hardening of an artery)
-spasm
involuntary contraction, twitching
(blepharospasm - twitting of the eyelid)
-stenosis
narrowing, stricture
(arteriostenosis - abnormal condition of narrowing of an artery)
-toxic
poison
(hepatoxic- poisonous to the liver)
-tropy
nourishment, development
(dystropy - bad development caused by improper nutrition)
-ac
pertaining to
(cardiac - pertaining to the heart)
-al
pertaining to
(neural - pertaining to a nerve)
-ar
pertaining to
(muscular - pertaining to muscle)
-ary
pertaining to
(pulmonary - pertaining to the lungs)
-eal
pertaining to
(esophageal - pertaining to the esophagus)
-ic
pertaining to
(thoracic - pertaining to the chest) Tho_Ras_Ik - pronounced
-ical
pertaining to
(pathological - pertaining to the study of disease)
-ile
pertaining to
(penile - pertaining to the penis)
-ior
pertaining to
(pertaining to the back of the body, behind, posterior)
-ous
pertaining to
(cutaneous - pertaining to the skin)
-tic
pertaining to
(acoustic - pertaining to hearing)
-esis
condition
(diuresis - abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine)
-ia
condition
(pneumonia - infection of the lung)
-ism
condition
(hyperthryriodism - condition characterized by overactivity of the thyroid gland)
-iatry
medicine, treatment
(podiatry- specialty concerned with treatment and prevention conditions of the feet)
-ician
specialist
(obstetrician-physician who specializes in pregnancy and childbirth)
-ist
specialist
(hematologist - physician who specializes in treatment of disorders of blood and blood-forming tissues)
-y
specialist
(neuropathy - disease condition of the nerves)
-icle
small, minute
(ventricle - small cavity of the brain or heart)
-ole
small, minute
(arteriole - smallest of the arteries, minute artery)
-ule
small, minute
(venule - small vein continuous with a capillary)
episiotomy
incision of the perineum
colectomy
excision of all of part of the colon
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture of a joint (to remove fluid)
splenectomy
excision of the spleen
colostomy
forming an opening (mouth) into the colon
osteotome
instrument to cut bone
tympanotomy
incision of the tympanic membrane
tracheostomy
forming an opening (mouth) into the trachea
mastectomy
excision of a breast
lithotomy
incision to remove a stone or calculus
hemorrhoidectomy
excision of hemorrhoids
colostomy
forming an opening (mouth) into the colon
colectomy
excision of the colon
osteotome
instrument to cut bone
arthrocentesis
surgical puncture of a joint
lithotomy
incision to remove a stone
mastectomy
excision of a breast
tympanotomy
incision of the tympanic membrane
tracheostomy
forming an opening (mouth) into the trachea
splenectomy
excision of the spleen
arthrodesis
fixation or binding of a joint
rhinoplasty
surgical repair of the nose
tenoplasty
surgical repair of tendons
myorrhapy
suture of muscle
mastopexy
fixation of a pendulous - breast
cystorraphy
suture of the bladder
osteoclasis
surgical fracture of bone
lithotripsy
crushing of a stone
enterolysis
separation of intestinal (adhesions)
neurotripsy
crushing a nerve
rhinoplasty
surgical repair of the nerve
arthrodesis
fixation of a joint
myorrphaphy
suture of a muscle
mastopexy
fixation of a breast
cystorrhaphy
suture of the bladder
tenoplasty
repair of tendons
osteoclasis
surgical fracture of a bone
lithotripsy
crushing stones
enterolysis
separation of intestinal (adhesions)
neurotripsy
crushing a nerve
dermatome
instrument to cut skin
tracheostomy
incision of the trachea
gastrorrhaphy
suture of the stomach (wall)
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
neuralgia
pain (along the course)of a nerve
bronchiectasis
dilation of a bronchus
carcinogenesis
producing or forming cancer
dermatosis
abnormal condition of the skin
hysterrhexis
rupture of the uterus
nephromegaly
enlargement of the kidney
otorrhea
discharge or flow from the ear
cystocele
herniation of the bladder
hemorrhage
bursting forth of blood
lithasis
abnormal condition of stone or calculus
myopathy
disease of muscle tissue
dysphagia
difficult or painful swallowing or eating
osteomalacia
softening of the bones
leukemia
white blood condition
erythropenia
deficiency in red blood cells
pelvimentry
measuring the pelvis
hepatocele
herniation of the liver
thoracic
pertaining to the chest
gastric,gastral
pertaining to the stomach
bacterial
bacteria
aquatic
water
axillary
armpit
cardiac or cardial
heart
spinal or spinous
spine
membranous
membrane
internist
specialist in internal medicine
leukemia
condition of white blood
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of sigmoid colon
alcoholism
condition of excessive alcohol
podiatry
treatment of feet
allergist or allergy
specialist in treating allergic disorders
mania
condition of madness
arteriole
minute artery
ventricle
small cavity
venule
small vein
diagnosis
diagnoses (plural)
formix
fornices ( plural)
vertebra
vertebrae (plural)
keratosis
keratoses (plural)
bronchus
bronchi (plural)
spermatozoon
spermatozoa (plural)
septum
septa (Plural)
coccus
cocci (plural)
ganglion
ganglia (plural)
prognosis
prognoses (plural)
thrombus
thrombi (plural)
appendix
appendices (plural)
bacterium
bacteria (plural)
testis
testes (plural)
nevus
nevi (plural)
inter/dental
between (def of prefix)
hypo/dermic
under, below (def of prefix)
epi/dermis
above, upon (def of prefix)
retro/version
backward, behind (def of prefix)
sub/lingual
under, below (def of prefix)
trans/vaginal
through, across (def of prefix)
infra/costal
under, below (def of prefix)
post/natal
after, behind (def of prefix)
quadri/plegia
four (def of prefix)
hyper/calcemia
excessive, above normal (def of prefix)
primi/gravida
first (def of prefix)
micro/scope
small (def of prefix)
tri/ceps
three (def of prefix)
poly/dipsia
many, much (def of prefix)
ab/duction
from, away from (def of prefix)
an/esthesia
without, not (def of prefix)
macro/cyte
large (def of prefix)
intra/muscular
in, within (def of prefix)
supra/pelvic
above, excessive, superior (def of prefix)
dia/rrhea
through, across (def of prefix)
circum/duction
around (def of prefix)
ad/duction
toward (def of prefix)
peri/odontal
around (def of prefix)
brady/cardia
slow (def of prefix)
tachy/pnea
rapid (def of prefix)
dys/tocia bad
painful, difficult (def of prefix)
eu/pnea good
normal (def of prefix)
hetero/grapht
different (def of prefix)
mal/nutrition
bad (def of prefix)
pseudo/cyseis
false (def of prefix)
retroversion
tipping back of an organ
hypodermic
pertaining to under the skin
prenatal
before birth
subnasal
pertaining to under the nose
postoperative
after surgery
intercostal
pertaining to between the ribs
pseudocyesis
false pregnancy
periodontal
pertaining to around the teeth
diarrhea
flow through (watery bowel movement)
ectogenous
pertaining to an origin outside (the body or structure)
suprarenal
above the kidney
hemiplegia
paralysis of one half (of the body)
quadiplegia
paralysis of four (limbs)
macrocyte
abnormally large blood cell
polyphobia
many fears
dyspepsia
difficult digestion
heterograft
tissue transplant from a different species
panarthritis
inflammation of many joints
antibacterial
against bacteria
bradycardia
slow heartbeat
malnutrition
poor or bad nutrition
amastia
without a breast
anesthesia
without sensation
eupnea
good or normal breathing
syndactylism
condition of fused fingers and toes
tachycardia
rapid heart beat
contraception
against conception
homograft
tissue transplant from the same species
dystocia
difficult childbirth
homeoplasia
formation of the same tissue