Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Bones, cartilage, joints, and ligaments


blood cell formation




bands of fibrous tissue that bind and support bones or cartilages at joints

axial skeleton

consists of skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum

appendicular skeleton

contains bones of arms, legs, shoulder girdle, and pelvis


process of bone formation


projections or prominences




narrow ridge of bone


sharp thornlike projection


large, irregularly shaped projection of the femur


small, rough, rounded eminence


large, rounded elevation or protuberance

examples of processes

condyle, epicondyle, head, facet, ramus

examples of cavities

fissures, foramina/foramen, fossae, meatus, sinuses


bone tissue

compact bone

dense and smooth bone

spongy bone

bone composed of needlelike pieces with a lot of open space

long bones

mostly compact bones. Limb bones are long bones.

short bones

contain more spongy than compact bone; generally cube-shaped. Eg.'s wrist and ankle bones

flat bones

thin; usually with two layers of compact bone and a layer of spongy bone in b/w. Usually bent or curved. Skull bones and sternum

irregular bones

includes all bones that are not classified as long, short, or flat. Vertebrae of the spinal column are irreg.


bone shaft


fibrous, connective tissue membrane that covers and protects the diaphysis and that also generates new bone cells for growth and repair

medullary cavity

cavity within bone shaft that contains fatty yellow bone marrow


located at each end of the bone shaft; made of spongy bone; contains red bone marrow

articular cartilage

covers the epiphysis and protects the bone surface; provides a smooth surface to prevent friction at the joint

epiphysial plate

growth region b/w the diaphysis and the epiphysis composed of hyaline cartilage. Becomes calcified when the bone stops growing; but is visible as the epiphysial line


fluid-filled synovial membrane sacs that cushion tendons where they cross bone

cranium and facial bones

skull is divided into these two sets of bones


all of the bones in the skull except for the mandible are joined by this


bone marrow (also, spinal cord)


marrow (also, any medulla)



axial skeleton

consists of the skull, vertebral column, thorax (ribs and sternum)

frontal bone

forms the forehead, bony projections under the eyebrow, superior part of the orbits

parietal bones

(2) form most of the superior and lateral walls of the cranium

sagittal suture

place where the two parietal bones meet in the midline of the skull

coronal suture

where the two parietal bones meet the frontal bone

temporal bones

lie inferior to the parietal bones

squamous sutures

where the temporal bones meet the parietal bones

external auditory meatus

canal that leads to the eardrum and the middle ear

styloid process

sharp, needlelike projection that serves as a point of attachment for many muscles

zygomatic process

thin bridge of bone that joins with the zygomatic cheekbone

mastoid process

rough projection that serves as a point of attachment for some neck muscles

mastoid sinuses

air cavities in the mastoid process


hard, flat portion of the temporal bone

occipital bone

forms the floor and back wall of the skull

lambdoidal suture

where the occipital bone joins the parietal bones

foramen magnum

large opening at the base of the skull, allows the spinal cord to connect with the brain

occipital condyles

lay on each side of the foramen magnum, rest on the first vertebra of the vertebral column

sphenoid bone

spans the width of the skull, forming part of the floor and side of the cranium and part of the orbits of both eyes

sella turcica

Turk's saddle; small depression that holds the pituitary gland in place

sphenoid sinuses

central part of the sphenoid bone that contains many air cavities

pterygoid processes

serves as a point of attachment for muscles that control the jaw

ethmoid bone

forms the roof of the nasal cavity and part of the walls of the orbits of both eyes

crista galli

serves as the point of attachment for the dura mater

dura mater

outermost covering of the brain


number of facial bones


lower jaw


(2) upright bars of bone, connect the mandible with the temporal bones


sockets on the superior edge of the bone that contain the lower teeth


(2) fused to form the upper jawbone; all facial bones except the mandible join the maxillae

palatine processes

form the anterior part of the hard palate

palatine bones

(2) form the posterior part of the hard palate

zygomatic bones

(2) the cheekbones; serve as part of the lateral walls of the orbits

lacrimal bones

(2) form the medial walls of each orbit; has a groove for tears

nasal bones

(2) form the bridge of the nose

vomer bone

(1) lies in the median line of the nasal cavity, forms most of the nasal septum

inferior conchae

(2) project from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; extensions of the ethmoid bone


number of cranial bones

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording