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Terms in this set (86)
An area of the skin that is supplied by nerves from a single spinal root, lateral part giving rise to the connective tissue of the skin.
The dorsal part giving rise to the skeletal musculature.
The ability to move your body or an object repeatedly without getting tired
Maximum amount of force that a muscle can exert against some for of resistance in a singe effort.
Orientation of body parts to one another and to support surface.
Orientation of eyes and head in relation to surrounding objects and plays important role in maintenance of balance.
Measure gravitational, linear, and angular accelerations of head in relation to inertial space.
3 different stances, stable and unstable (6 trials)
measures amount of errors
want to establish a baseline if possible
Balance Equilibrium Scoring System
Exercises must be safe, yet challenging
stress multiple planes of motion
Incorporate multisensory approach
Begin with a static, bilateral, and stable surfaces,
and progress to dynamic, unilateral, and unstable surfaces.
Progress toward sport specific injuries
Rules of balance training
Primary goal of rehab
Restoring Range of Motion
limitations of Range of Motion
-joint can be moved by muscle contraction
-joint can be passively moved through ROM
-joint is capable of moving further
-more important for injury prevention allowed muscle to compensate if not enough elasticity
Oldest form, makes use of repetitive bouncing movements
stretching muscle to the point of discomfort and holding at a point for an extended period of time.
Alternating contractions and stretches through ROM
Propioceptive Neuromuscular Facilities
Muscle that contracts to produce movements
Muscle being stretched in response to contraction of agonist
-Techniques used to relieve soft tissue from abnormal grip of tight fascia
-ART or foam rolling
-requires special training
-also referred to as soft tissue mobilization
-dramatic results can be seen immediately 3x/wk
Myofascial Release Stretching
-decrease muscle tension
-passive technique puts body in position of comfort, relieves pain
-identifies trigger point, hold for 90 seconds.
-one of the most effective and gentle methods for treatment of acute and chronic musculoskeletal dysfunction.
-tender point is maintained by holding pressure with finger through passive ROM to relax muscle, hold for 90 seconds
Position Release Therapy
-produces tension, but no change in muscle length
muscle shortens in length while tension increases to overcome resistance
Resistance is greater than muscular force being produced and muscle lengthens while producing tension
-size of muscle
-number of muscle fibers
-fast twitch vs slow twitch
Factors that determine Strength, Endurance, and Power
Muscles that cross two joints
Involve voluntary contraction of muscle in specifically controlled direction at varied levels of intensity against a distinctly executed counterforce applied by technician.
surface tension, motionless water
generated at the front of an object during movement
Behind the object during movement
gluteus maximus and medius
having a strong core helps prevent these
Draw naval toward spine/table, flattening out the back, tucking the hips under
-slow to fast
-simple to complex
-stable to unstable
-low to high force
-general to specific
-correct execution to increased intensity
Progression of core exercises and education of patient
Efferent response to sensory information
how long does it take the results to be seen for neuromuscular control
restore neurosensory properties of injured capsuloligamentous structures and enhances sensitivity of uninvolved peripheral afferents.
Propioception and Kinesthesia
- lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
-where all movements begin
-person's ability to maintain balance withing a body's base support
-muscular weakness, proprioceptive deficits, and ROM deficitis effect COG
Center Of Gravity
Single most important element dictating movement strategies within closed kinetic chain.
- Rectus Abdominus
- External/Internal obliques
-Transversospinalis group (includes multifidus)
-develop list of outcomes
-create a list of tests and measures to determine injury
-observation and inspection
Objective Info evaluation process
-site of injury
-mechanism of injury
Subjective Info evaluation process
dislocation that relocates itself.
shoulders and patella
at least one bone in articulation is forced out of its normal and proper alignment and stays out until reduced.
shoulder, elbows, fingers
-results from a blow from external source that causes soft tissue damage.
-can cause capillaries to rupture and bleeding into tissue.
-tender to touch/ palpate
Occurs in joints with friction between tendons, bones, skins, or muscle.
Inflammation to synovial sheath surrounding tendon
Inflammation to the tendon.
Occurs when overuse to tendon sliding over bony protuberances, causing it to be inflamed or irritated; can cause crepetis
overuse or fatigue fracture
fragment of bone is pulled away at bony attachment
multiple fragments that have to be surgically replaced
similar to oblique, but has spiral along longitudinal axis
parallel to long axis of bone
crack perpendicular to longitudinal axis and all the way through
splintering of bone
-limited healing capacity
-anticular cartilage fails to elicit clot formation or cellular response
-subchondral can cause inflammatory response and healing will occur in about 2 weeks and completes in 2 months.
-chondrocyte implantation or microfrature surgery.
Physiology of Cartilage Healing
-extent of injury
-poor vascular supply
-seperation of tissue
-keloids and hypertrophic scars
-humidity, climate, oxygen tension
-health, age, nutrition
Factors that impede healing
Formation of clot
First hours to 4-6 weeks
3 weeks to several years
-result of acute injury and produces pain and disability
-fractures, dislocations, subluxations, sprains, strains, contusions.
-overuse injuries from repetitive overloading or incorrect mechanics associated with repeated motions.
-tendonitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis
-later phases of rehab
-fixed speed through full ROM
-pre, eccentric and concentric
-same resistance, muscle changes length
-early phase of rehab
-same resistance, no motion, no change in muscle length
Protection, Restricted Activity, Ice, Compression, Elevation
-provide correct immediate first aid and management following injury to control swelling
-reduce minimize pain
-establish core control
-reestablish neuromuscular control
-improve postural stability and balance
-restore ROM and increase muscular strength, endurance, and power
-maintain cardio fitness
-incorporate appropriate functional progressions
Short term goals of rehab
-entire body works and operates as integrated functional unit
lines of communication
Patient, physician, family, coach
Specific Adaptation to imposed Demands
Who makes up rehab team?
Physician, patient, physical therapist, family, athletic trainer, coaches
Who always has the final decision in the athlete return?
Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization
the amount of load or resistance, providing a greater stress, or load, on the body than it is normally accustomed to in order to increase fitness.
the range of motion of your joints or the ability of your joints to move freely. It also refers to the mobility of your muscles, which allows for more movement around the joints.
Direct on set muscle soreness
Use it or lose it
is the strength that gets us through life and daily survival.
The term refers to changes in the normal biomechanical function of a joint, an extremity, or a torso as a result of disease.
Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan
Propioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
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