APUSH Chapter 34 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War
Terms in this set (45)
London Economic Conference 1933
International economic conference called by League of Nations. When proposals were made to stabilize currencies, Roosevelt withdrew his support. He felt this wouldn't allow him to inflate the value of the dollar. Conference ended without any agreement.
Tydings-McDuffie Act 1934
Providing for the independence of the Philippines by 1946 (finally -- after 12 years). The nation did not want to have to support the Philippines if Japan attacked there -- because that would mean war with Japan also, and they were not economically sound enough to do that.
Good Neighbor policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region.. The last marines left Haiti in 1934; Cuba, under the Platt Amendment, was released from American control; and the grip on Panama was relaxed in 1936.
Allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
Mexican government seized American oil properties in 1938, President Roosevelt held to his unarmed intervention policy and a settlement was eventually worked out in 1941, causing the oil companies to lose much of their original stake.
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act 1934
designed to lift American export trade from the depression doldrums, aimed at relief and recovery, activated the low-tariff policies of the New Dealers, provided that the the other country involved was willing to respond with similar reductions (based on the idea that trade is a two-way street - Hull) -- , the president was empowered to lower existing rates by as much as 50% provided that the other country involved would do the same.
Secretary of State Hull
Secretary of State under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in charge of diplomatic relations with Japan prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Negotiated pacts with 21 countries by the end of 1939. These pacts were essentially trade agreements that stated if the United States lowered its tariff, then the other country would do the same.
The alliance between Italy and Germany (Mussolini and Hitler)
Washington Naval Treaty
The U.S., Great Britain, Japan, Italy, and France agreed on a 10 year naval holiday during which period the nations would construct no new capital ships and would establish a ship tonnage ratio of 5-5-3-1.7-1.7. -- JAPAN terminated this and accelerated their construction of giant battleships.
Attacked by Italy (Mussolini), seeking power and glory in Africa
Johnson Debt Default Act 1934
Forbade any country that still owed US money from borrowing any more cash Americans maintained the isolationist mentality due to the ocean borders.
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937.
stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, US citizens were prohibited from sailing on a belligerent ship, selling or transporting munitions to a belligerent, or making loans to a belligerent. However, this actually provoked aggressors. Later congress amended this to apply an arms embargo to both Loyalists and rebels.
Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939
General Francisco Franco, rose against the left-wing Republican government in Madrid. Aided by Mussolini and Hitler, Franco undertook to overthrow the Loyalist regime, which was assisted by the Soviet Union. US could have sent money to the Spanish loyalists but maintained isolationist beliefs and tried to stay out of the war.
Invasion of China 1937
Japanese militarists touched off an explosion that led to the all-out invasion of China. President Roosevelt declined to invoke the recently passed neutrality legislation by refusing to call the "China incident" an officially declared war. If he had, he would have cut off the trickle of munitions on which the Chinese were dependent. The Japanese, as a result, were able to continue to buy war supplies in the United States. (Both were buying from the US?)
1937, American gunboat sunk by Japanese planes. Tokyo was quick to make apologies and the United States accepted.
Hitler's violation of the Treaty of Versailles
1935, Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles when he introduced mandatory military service in Germany. In 1936, he again violated the treaty when he took over the demilitarized German Rhineland.
Hitler invaded Austria. (Note: Austria actually voted for the occupation, fully aware that if it resisted, Germany would forcefully take over Austria.)
Munich Conference 1938
September 1938, the Western European democracies, unprepared for war, betrayed Czechoslovakia to Germany when they gave away Sudetenland. They hoped that by doing this, Hitler's greed for power would end. ("Okay we'll make an exception this one time-- oh no, it backfired"
Hitler took control of Czechoslovakia
August 23, 1939, Soviet Union signed a nonaggression treaty with Hitler. Meant that Germany could make war on Poland and the Western democracies without fear of retaliation from the Soviet Union. (Great..)
September 1st, 1939
Hitler gave Poland the ultimatum to give back the land they lost in WWI or be attacked. They refused to give back the land so on this day, Germany invaded Poland. Britain and France, honoring their commitments to Poland, declared war on Germany; World War II had started.
Neutrality Act of 1937
placed a arms trade embargo on Spain and extended the current embargo on Britain and France.
Neutrality Act of 1939
Aware that France and Britain desperately needed war materials, this legislation was passed stating that the European democracies could buy American war materials as long as they would transport the munitions on their own ships after paying for them in cash. America thus avoided loans, war debts, and the torpedoing of American arms-carriers.
Cure for unemployment in USA
Overseas demand for war goods brought a sharp upswing from the recession of 1937-1938 and ultimately solved the decade-long unemployment crisis.
was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground
Hitler ended the "phony war" period by overrunning Denmark and Norway. Hitler then moved on to the Netherlands and Belgium. By late June 1940, France was forced to surrender.
September 6, 1940, under this measure, America's first peacetime DRAFT was initiated-provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves each year.
Britain's need for help
When France surrendered, Americans realized that England was all that stood between Hitler controlling all of Europe. Roosevelt moved with tremendous speed to call upon the nation to build huge airfleets and a two-ocean navy. Congress approved a spending of $37 billion.
Havana Conference of 1940
United States agreed to share with its 20 New World neighbors the responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine (US to europe: we won't mess with your colonies if you don't mess with latin america)
Battle of France
Germany won. May 26-June 4 1940
Battle of Britain
August 1940, raged in the air over the British Isles for months. During the Battle of Britain, radio broadcasts brought the drama from London air raids directly to America homes. Sympathy for Britain grew, but it was not yet sufficient to push the United States into war.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us. Most powerful group of those who supported aid for Britain
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America BEFORE we went to war in another country.
September 2, 1940
President Roosevelt agreed to transfer to 50 destroyers left over from WWI to Britain. In return, Britain agreed to hand over to the United States 8 valuable defensive base sites. Shifting warships from a neutral United States to Britain was a flagrant violation of the neutrality obligations.
Election of 1940
Republicans chose Wendell L. Willkie ...FDR won the election of 1940; voters generally felt that should war come, the experience of FDR was needed. Not a good idea to switch presidents in the middle of a war
Lend-Lease Bill in 1941
Nicknamed "An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the United States," it allowed for American arms to be lent or leased to the democracies of the world that needed them. When the war was over, the guns and tanks could be returned. Flawed because the arms would be destroyed and unable to be returned after the war. But it was meant to keep the nation out of war, not to actually get the stuff back.
May 21, 1941
Robin Moor, an unarmed American merchantman, was destroyed by a German submarine in the South Atlantic, outside the war zone. Hitler figured the Lend-Lease Bill was an unofficial declaration of war, so decided to attack.
June 22, 1941
Hitler launched an attack on the Soviet Union. President Roosevelt immediately promised assistance and backed up his words by making some military supplies available.
held in August 1941; Winston Churchill secretly met with Roosevelt on a warship off the coast of Newfoundland; first of a series of history-making conferences between the two statesmen for the discussion of common problems, including the menace Japan
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war... it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government and to regain the governments abolished by the dictators; and it declared for disarmament and a peace of security, pending a new League of Nations.
FDR ordered the U.S. Navy to escort British ships carrying Lend-Lease Materials. This policy allowed Navy to destroy German U Boats
This occurred after the US destroyer Greer was attacked by a U Boat
November 1941, Repealed Neutrality Act of 1939, enabled merchant ships to be legally armed and enter the combat zones with munitions for Britain.
December 7, 1941
Japanese bombers attacked Pearl Harbor, killing 2,348 people. Congress declares war
December 11, 1941
Germany, Italy, Japan- declare was on U.S., Congress declares war on them as well
Reasons for US entering the war
They desired to stay out of the conflict, yet they did not want Britain to be knocked out. To keep Britain from collapsing, the Roosevelt administration felt compelled to extend the unneutral aid that invited attacks from German submarines. Americans wished to stop Japan's conquests in the Far East. To keep Japan from expanding, Washington undertook to cut off vital Japanese supplies with embargoes that invited possible retaliation.