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Terms in this set (83)
Battle of Bull Run
Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory.
Importance: Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and costly.
McClellan's Peninsular Campaign
Union Gen. George McClellan was called on to lead army to take Richmond. McClellan was extremely cautious, obsessed with numerical advantage. Delayed making a move for several months before being engaged in battle by Lee in the Seven Days Battles.
Importance: Lincoln withdrew McClellan and hired someone who wouldn't hold back: Robert E. Lee.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Importance: Allows Lincoln to give emancipation proclamation.
Battle of Fredericksburg
Union: Ambrose Burnside, Confederate: Robert Lee South won; 12,600 casualties; one of the Union's worst defeats.
Importance: People start questioning lincoln; Burnside replaced by Joseph Hooker; Union lost 2x as many men as the Confederacy.
Declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free.
Importance: led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army; made sure that Britain and France, both of whom were against slavery, did not aid the South.
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battle of the war, Confederate Pickett's Charge (disastrous), Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade).
Importance: Turning point of the Civil War.
Fall of Vicksburg
July 4, 1863 Vicksburg surrendered to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. It was one of the last cities on the Mississippi River to be Confederate.
Importance: Allowed the Union forces to control the Mississippi River and gain contol of Tennessee.
Sherman's march through Georgia
(the March to Sea) Union army burned everything in its wake as they marched through Georgia to lower the morale of the Confederates and deplete the Southern resource.
Importance: Diminished moral and undercut the confederate war effort; foreshadowed the widescale warfare of the twentieth century.
Because of Grant and the Northern army successes Lincoln was re-elected as President and defeated McClellan.
Importance: With the re-election of Lincoln, the fate of the Confederacy was sealed and any hope for negotiation vanished.
The site of surrender of the Confederate general Lee to Union general Grant, marking the end of the Civil War, Grant was lenient- the idea of reconciliation not vengeance, the south could keep its horses and the generals could keep their guns.
Importance: Ended the war; surrender prevented several more years of guerilla war.
Shot at Ford's Theatre by John Wilkes Booth, died overnight at the Peterson house across the street.
Importance: Left Andrew Johnson President; Radical Republicans wanted to use Reconstruction as an opportunity to teach the South a lesson and to punish them; led to Black Codes.
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slave owners.
Importance: It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Agency created by Congress as the war ended to assist Civil War refugees and freed former slaves.The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
Importance: Provided support for the poor in the South, especially EDUCATION.
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves.
Importance: Enabled plantation owners to exploit african american workers.
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States that was formed to resist the emancipation of slaves; used terrorist tactics to suppress Black people.
Importance: Passed discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power.
William Seward purchased area from Russia, Bought for 7.2 million dollars. There was controversy over the necessity of this land.
Importance: United States gained 586,412 square miles; Gave America a presence where it could keep an eye on Russia, as well as the hidden benefit of gold and oil
Declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
Importance: Citizenship for African Americans, Repealed of 3/5 Compromise, Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, Repudiate (reject) confederate debts.
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude.
Importance: Gave African American men the right to vote.
Federal troops were withdrawn from the South.
Importance: White rule was restored; black people were over time deprived of many civil and political rights and their economy position remained depressed; radicals' hopes beyond abolition of slavery died; results were one-party "solid South" and increased racial bitterness
After Johnson's almost-impeachment, Grant was a Republican hero. He supported radical Reconstruction, and won the election nicely.
Importance: The Chinese Exclusion Act; 15th Amendment; Whiskey Ring; Fought KKK; Enforced Civil Rights Laws; Large Scale CORRUPTION.
Tweed Scandal *
Boss Tweed led a scandal in defrauding the city with a group of corrupt politicians; they charged 13 million to build it and it only cost 3 million
Importance: NYC resources were drained; The amount was no less than $30 million and may have been as much as $200 million.
Credit Mobilier Scandal*
Scandal erupted when journalists discovered the Credit Mobilier Company's illegal manipulation of contracts by a construction and finance company associated with the building of the Union Pacific Railroadhad and that they bribed congressmen and even the Vice President in order to allow the scam to continue.
Panic of 1873
Economic panic caused by overexpansion and overspeculation on railroads and western lands;
Importance: Caused the nation's largest bank to collapse (and bringing with it many smaller banks, business firms and the stock market).
Whiskey Ring Scandal
During Grant's administration (Secretary) ; association of distillers/ federal officials defrauded the government of high taxes imposed on liquor, transferred to the Republican Party so it could increase its campaign funds.
Importance: Diverted the public's attention from the postwar conditions in the South; one of the many examples of Grant's poor choice of associates; Added to the distrust of government officials.
Shot twice while standing in the Washington railroad station by Charles Guiteau because he didn't get a job. Importance: Eventually led to the end of the Spoils System.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Importance: Caused chinese population in America to decrease; denied naturalization rights to Chinese in the U.S. (not allowed to become U.S. citizens).
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Importance: Made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission; Did away with the spoils system.
22nd President, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption; he served two nonconsecutive terms; Wouldn't annex Hawaii.
Importance: Ended the 3rd party system; achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes.
23rd President; Republican, poor leader; Pro-business and tariff.
Importance: introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars: "Billion Dollar Congress."
Billion Dollar Congress
Concerned with civil service reform., gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases.
Importance: Passed the McKinley Tariff Act, Anti-Trust Act.
raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history. Goal was to create a surplus to be used for internal improvements and lowering internal taxes.
Importance: Caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
Homestead Steel Strike
One of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.
Importance: Ended with the destruction of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers and a setback for all efforts to unionize steelworkers.
24th President; His second term was marred by the Depression of 1893; , First Democratic president since the civil war; defender of laissez-faire economics and low tariffs
Importance: Dealt with Farmer's Alliance, Populist Party, and the Grange.
Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt; 20% of the workforce unemployed; Caused by excessive building and overspeculation as well as a continued agricultural depression along with the free coining of silver and the collecting of debts by European banking houses; worst economic downturn of the nineteenth century
Importance: Led to the Pullman strike; Caused loss of business confidence.
JP Morgan loan of $65 Million
JP Morgan, who was richer than the US at the time, loaned the US $65 Million to float a bond issue that restored the treasury.
Importance: Saved US Treasury but hurt Cleveland in the Election of 1896.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal.
Importance: Established "Separate but equal" clause
Authorized by the Pacific Railway Act.
Importance: Led to tremendous competition between Railroad companies.
National Labor Union
Established by William Sylvis; wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor; attempt to unite all laborers.
Importance: 1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers.
A railroad that connected the eastern United States to the western United States.
Importance: Firmly bonded the West Coast the Union, created a trade route to the far-east, and helped the western expansion; Made transportation more efficient.
Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Operated as a major company trust (Horizontal Integration) and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations; John D. Rockefeller.
Importance: gained a monopoly over the world petroleum market with the practice of trusts and swift elimination of competition.
At this location, in May of 1886, a series of events took place that resulted in four dead laborers and seven dead police officers.
Importance: Knights of Labor were became (incorrectly) associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.
Supreme Court case of 1886 that prevented states from regulating railroads or other forms of interstate commerce.
Importance: Led to creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission; farmers responded to this case with increased political organizing.
American Federation of Labor. A union of skilled workers focused on collective bargaining (negotiation between labor and management) to reach written agreements on wages hours and working conditions. The AFL used strikes as a major tactic to win higher wages and shorter work weeks.
Importance: The union became a major force in the industrial world; higher wages, better working conditions, and a shorter work week.
Interstate Commerce Act
Interstate Commerce Act created an Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the conduct of the railroad industry; prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line.
Importance: With this act the railroads became the first industry subject to Federal regulation
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States.
Importance: First federal action against monopolies; extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting; Initially misused against labor unions,
Carnegie sold his company in 1900 for over 400 million to a new steel combination (United States Steel) headed by JP Morgan.
Importance: First billion dollar company and also the largest enterprise in the world; controlled over 3/5th of the nations steel business.
Origin of the Species
Theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection.
Importance: Conflicts with Creation stories. Disrupted the churches; Scientology; "Survival of the Fittest"; Cast doubt on a literal interpretation of the Bible; set forth the first theory, backed with evidence, that went against creationism.
Distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.
Importance: Example of how easy Congress could pass new laws since the South were not readmitted yet.
Wyoming gave Women vote
Created in order to entice women to move to Wyoming.
Importance: National Women's Suffrage Association.
An adult education movement at the turn of the century.
Importance: Brought people into communities to lecture.
School that had the first separate graduate school; The graduate school was Medical School.
Importance: started medical and engineering research.
Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.
importance: Ushers in "New Law"- Tenement House Act of 1901 prohibits more construction. Improves quality of low-income housing, design controls.
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper.
Importance: equipped African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in the trades and agriculture.
First steel suspension bridge in NYC; Built so that people could get to Manahattan in the winter time when the river froze.
Importance: Added to the seductive glamour of gleaming cities; Connected Manhattan and Brooklyn.
Met Opera House
The largest classical music organization.
Importance: Produced some of the worlds most famed artists.
The Home Insurance Company Building built in Chicago; Used water pumps and elevators; flat iron building
Importance: First building composed of more than 6 stories.
Statue of Liberty
a large statue that was a gift from the French to thank the U.S. for help during the French Revolution; symbolizing hope and freedom on Liberty Island in New York Harbor.
Importance: Celebrated the historic french/american friendship and also the triumph of american freedom.
All-Star Baseball World Tour
First sport to travel around the world on a tour.
Importance: diffused baseball all over the world.
Settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago.
Importance: Provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
National American Woman Suffrage Association; focused on all women's suffrage, headed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
Importance: Helped women win the right to vote.
A game played on a court by two opposing teams of 5 players that was developed by Dr. James Naismith. Points are scored by throwing the basketball through an elevated horizontal hoop.
Importance: A sport that could be played between the football and baseball seasons and during the winter indoors.
Library of Congress
Established by Congress to function as a research library for the legislative branch of the federal government; Founded from the donations of Andrew Carnegie.
Importance: Eventually became the unofficial national library of the United States.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality.
Importance: abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Indians moved to Great Plains
Indians were allowed to more during westward expansion further into their territory.
Importance: Led to creation of Reservations.
Pike's Peak Gold Rush
1858, discovery of gold set a miner rush; phrase "Pikes Peak or Bust" may panned unsuccessfully but the gold was beneath the surface and hard to extract.
Importance: led to the boom of mining and prospecting.
It gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Importance: Companies got better land, encouraged westward migration.
Sand Creek Massacre
An attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members.
Importance: Beginning of Indian Wars
Social and educational organization founded to gain more political representation for farmers and to improve their living standards.
Importance: Provide sociability and assistance to farm families isolated in the West and South. They found cooperatives to keep down the prices farmer's paid to railroads and big businesses to market their crops.
Battle of Little Big Horn
battle in which the Sioux, led by Sitting Bull, defeated the U.S. Army led by General Custer.
Importance: Last victory of the Native Americans; indians out of their territory; Custer dead.
A Farmers' organization founded and worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy.
Importance: Rallied behind political reforms to solve farmers' economic troubles; founded Populist Party
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Importance: Opened up land for the Railroads to be built.
People who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began.
Importance: led to Indian Appropriations Act of 1889.
Six States Admitted
North & South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming.
Importances: Expanded the US and the most states ever admitted during a presidency.
Closure of the Frontier
The West was effectively settled; and the Railroad stretched throughout all parts of the US.
Importance: Mining and cattle booms in the new six states admitted.
supported mainly by farmers in the South and West, the People's party was the successor of the Greenback-Labor party of the 1880s.
Importance: Advocated variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, and direct election of U.S. senators.
Battle of Wounded Knee
US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890; the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States.
Importance: This ended the Indian Wars.
Populists poll 1 million votes
The most votes the Populist Party has ever gotten before.
Importance: Meant that the Populist Party was increasing but they still did not receive the desired outcome.
A protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in the second year of a four-year economic depression.
Importance: Urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements to create work.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued.
Importance: Paralyzed railway traffic nationwide; brought a bad image upon unions.
2nd time McKinley defeats Brian for Presidency; Assassinated by Leon Czolgosz and was succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt.
Importance: McKinley Tariff, Gold Standard Act, Spanish-American War, purchased the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines and annexed Hawaii.
Gold Standard Act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold.
Importance: The government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924: An Act of Congress that recognized all American Indians as Citizens of the US.
Importance: granted them the right to vote in a federal election.
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
Importance: Willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government; Promoted tribal reorganization and gave federal recognition to tribal governments.
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