AP Euro Russian Revolution
Terms in this set (47)
Tsar Nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin. In WWI ordered a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary, forcing a chain reaction of mobilization.
War Communism - forced peasants to give everything to the government, crops, animals, etc.
This caused the peasants to start to kill all of their crops and animals so the government couldn't get to it. This mixed with drought and famine made for thousands of peasants dying
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death
capital city of Russia during World War I; formerly (and today) known as St. Petersburg.
International Women's Day
women march for "Peace and Bread," Tsar says to fire on them, but soldiers join them instead, causes Tsar to abdicate
strike by workers in many different industries at the same time
The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
Abdication of Nicholas II
Abdicated at the end of the March Revolution because of the following: (1) 7.5 million casualties by 1917, (2) politicization since Revolution of 1905, (3) government's incompetence during the war (slaughter, hunger, homelessness, disease), (4) Nicholas II stubborn resistance to change, (5) influence disasterous influence on state matters, + (6) March riots
New political party with support from rising professional and business class with some support also from enterprising landowners. They formed the liberal segment of public opinion, a.k.a. CADETS. Many of these were active in provincial zemstvos. Really more interested in politics, and policy than in conditions of the workers.
a Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
populists. Largest radical group. Believed the peasants would one day overthrow the tsar and only revolution could bring reform.
Social Democratic Party
founded by Russian Marxists in 1898; held the belief that revolution would begin first in western Europe, following classical Marxist principles; distrusted the peasant class
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
Means "minority". Group created from the split of the SDs, led by Martov. Tried to take power from Bolsheviks in Civil war beginning in 1918, but did not succeed.
V. I. Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks who took power in Russia in November, 1917
Radical document calls (1) for Russia to withdraw from the war, (2) for the soviets to seize power on behalf of workers and poor peasants, and (3) for all private land to be nationalized., Lenin's. argued that wartime chaos had allowed the bourgeois and proletarian revolutions to merge in a dramatically short period of time, and the overthrow of the aristocracy had handed power to the weak bourgeoisie holding power through the provisional government, which needed to be overthrown by the proletariat
Peace, Land, and Bread
Army Order #1
Issued by the Petrograd Soviet shipped officers of their authority and placed the power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
John Reed - Ten Days That Shook The World
American journalist and socialist who experienced the November Revolution firsthand, followed many prominent leaders in his time in Russia
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
Wanted to be the savior of Russia. Tried to stage a coup-demanded the resignation of all ministers; Kerensky ordered him to turn over command. But soldiers refused to follow him.
Russian revolutionary intellectual and close adviser to Lenin. A leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), he was known as the strategist
Military Revolutionary Committee
Trotsky as Leader
When Lenin the Bolsheviks and military control in the capital and on November 6th, took over the government buildings. Lenin was named the head of the government by a congress of soviets after this.
The former home of the Czar and the place where the Bolsheviks seized control
Congress of Soviets
Lenin's parliamentary institution based on the soviets and Bolshevik domination; replaced the initial parliament dominated by the Social Revolutionary party.
a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenins orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates.
the industrial working class
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917
Humiliated Russia, they lost large amounts of land
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Russian naval commander and explorer who became the Supreme Ruler of the counter-revolutionary anti-communist White forces during the Russian Civil War
Commissar of War
Position Lenin gave Trotsky to give him full control over how the newly formed Red Army went about its work.
Trotsky, reinstated the draft and insisted on rigid discipline
A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.
new supreme commander of russian forces, August 26-30th, attempted to seize control of the government and establish military control; consquences: kerensky's reputation was damaged and Mensheviks and social rev leaders were shamed by their association with Kerensky and it allowed the Bolsheviks to gain overall control over Petrograd
"Revolutionary Terrorism", Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 766)
How did Lenin die?
had multiple strokes
a seven-member committee that became the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party in Russia
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Trotsky vs. Stalin
struggle to see who would take over from Lenin.
Trotsky = Jewish, Intellectual
- worldwide revolution
Stalin = secretary of Communist Party
- loyalty in party
- strengthening of empire before revolution
Party General Secretary
Joseph Stalin rose to power due to his position of :
"World Wide Revolution"
shifted the world balance of power
increased competition between nations and poverty in less developed nations
widened the wealth gap between industrialized countries and non industrialized countries
industrialized countries viewed poor countries as markets for their manufactured products
Europe had tremendous economic power
Asia and Africa were still based on agriculture and small workshops
development of middle class developed opportunities for education and democracy
Under Stalin, resulted with collectivization (kulak resistance and famines) and massive industrialization (five years plan).
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. (781)
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class. Stalin targeted them because of their success
was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin
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