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ExSc 390: articulations part iii
Terms in this set (70)
trochanteric, iliopsoas, ischial
(GTPS: greater trochanteric pain syndrome)
Major hip bursae:
Ligamentum capitis, transverse acetabular ligament, iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, pubofemoral, acetabular labrum of hip
Ligamentum capitis and transverse acetabuluar ligament
Which ligaments in the hip are interarticular?
Y ligament, strongest in the body.
Positioned to prevents excessive EXTENSION.
Plays role in upright posture.
Winds tightly on extension, helping STABILIZE extension
Prevents excessive ABDUCTION of femur, LIMITS EXTENSION.
Inguinal, sacrospinous, sacrotuberous
From pubic tubercle to the ASIS
together with sacrotuberous ligament, converts greater sciatic notch into the greater sciatic foramen and lesser to lesser. PREVENTS POSTERIOR ROTATION of ilium (in respect to sacrum)
Fascial connections that make it consistent with biceps femoris insertion, CONTROLS FORWARD FLEXION of sacrum and RESTRICTS POSTERIOR ROTATION OF ILIUM
Short (sacrum to ilium, runs obliquely)
Long (PSIS to sacrum, restricts anterior ilial rotation)
Interosseous (intraarticular, toughest ligament in body.
MAINTAINS JOINT SPACE DURING WEIGHTBEARING
Attaches fifth transverse process to iliac crest. Muscular till thirties. Becomes ligamentous tissue in fifth decade.
STABILIZES CONNECTION BETWEEN LOWER BACK AND PELVIC. Limits side flexion of trunk.
Posterior pelvic articulation
Anterior pelvic articulation
The ends of pubic bones are covered with ____ cartilage. Connected by ____ cartilage (disc)
2 joints right and left.
Between sacrum and iliac bones.
Help transfer weight from spine to the lower limbs and provide elasticity to the pelvic ring.
Supports pelvic organs/structures
Typical features of synovial joint except the articular cartilage on ilium is FIBROCARTILAGE and the cartilage covering the sacrum is HYALINE (thicker).
Very strong, ligamentous.
Part synovial and part fibrous (syndesmosis).
Size, shape and roughness of articular surfaces vary among individuals.
False. (no muscles, they are influenced by the action of the muscles acting on the lumbar spine and hip)
T/F: SI joint and symphysis pubis have muscles controlling their movements.
Nutation (flexion) and counter-nutation (extension)
Movement of sacrum and ilium:
Movement of ilium on sacrum is referred to as:
T/F: SI joint motion decreases throughout life; total mean rotation is 4 degrees, total translation is 3 mm.
What kind of joint is the tibiofemoral?
What kind of joint is patellofemoral?
Knee joints are the largest and most complex of which type of joints?
The joints rely on ligaments to strengthen and support the knee
Internal and external rotation
(No internal rotation is possible from the extended knee. At 20º of flexion, tibia starts to glide and rotation is possible. Maximum rotation at 90º of flexion possible)
What movement does the knee perform when it is flexed?
knee passive medial rotation:
knee passive lateral rotation:
Screw home mechanism
Conjunct rotation of external rotation of the tibia during terminal extension necessitated by the larger medial femoral condyle
Screw home mechanism
Anterior glide of tibia on femur during extension.
During last 20º of knee extension, anterior tibial glide persists on the femur's medial condyle because it is longer and its articular surface is greater than the lateral condyle's.
Prolonged anterior glide on the medial side produces external tibial rotation (internal rotation of femur).
tibiofemoral and patellofemoral
these knee joints share a common capsule
the patello-femoral joint is a _____,_____ gliding joint
suprapatellar bursa (can fill with fluid and swell)
Joint cavity and capsule extend superiorly as the:
(synovial fluid is re-distributed during motion. fat pad separates pouch from femur)
The anterior part (suprapatellar bursa) is folded ___ during extension and posterior part (gastrocnemius bursa) ____ during flexion
Medial Collateral Ligament
To pes anserinus, allows flexion while keeping knee tense. Adherent to medial meniscus. Main stabilizer against valgus stress and external rotation of flexed knee.
attaches proximally to medial femoral epicondyle and tibia distally.
"part of capsular ligament" (middle third).
strong fibrous membrane
Lateral Collateral Ligament
Lateral femoral condyle to styloid process of fibula. Doesn't attach to lateral meniscus. Stabilizes against varus stress.
flexion, extension/internal rotation
in the ACL, the anteromedial part is taut in ____ and the posterolateral part is taut in _____/_____
This ligament controls anterior translation of tibia on femur and resists hyperextension of the knee.
In closed-chain activities it restricts posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia.
Stronger than the ACL, prevents posterior displacement of the tibia on the femur.
In closed-chain it restricts anterior displacement of the femur on the tibia.
Tendinous expansion of the semimembranosus. Reinforces posteriormedial corner of the capsule.
Extra capsular, reinforces capsule posteriolaterally.
Connects anterior portion of menisci
part of the capsule which connects the periphery of each meniscus with the margin of the tibia
Femoral condyle and lateral meniscus (when internally rotating it contracts--or externally rotates in closed chain--and pulls meniscus posteriorly)
Popliteus originates on the:
increase area of joint contact, share pressure in weight bearing, act as shock absorbers, protect articular surface.
Deepen the articular surface and help stabilize knee.
Help facilitate some movement of the joint (rotation).
Aid joint nutrition and lubrication.
plantar and dorsiflexion
Medial ankle ligament
deltoid attaches from medial malleolus to calcaneus, navicular and talus. 3 attachments, 4 parts.
anterior/posterior talotibial, calcaneotibial, tibionavicular.
Lateral ankle ligament
Anterior talofibular (horizontal attachment from talus to fibula)
Calcaneofibular (slightly oblique attaching from apex of lateral malleolus to calcaneus)
Anterior ankle ligament
tibiofibular, posterior, tibiofibular, posterior talofibular (horizontal, connects to talus and fibula)
most commonly injured ankle ligament?
Superior extensor retinaculum
binds down the foot extensors by connecting lateral distal fibula and medial distal fibula
Inferior extensor retinaculum
Y shaped band binding extensors
band that binds down the peroneal tendons
medial aspect, retains and binds down the medial flexor muscle tendons
Condyloid (flex, extend, adduct, abduct, circumduct)
Hinge (flex, extend)
articulation between talus and calcaneus
axis of rotation runs in oblique direction from posterolateral plantar aspect to anteromedial dorsal aspect
Strong short ligament
Medial Fibers become taut with eversion
between talus and calcaneous
Open chain pronation
triplanar movement, combines movements of calcaneal eversion, talar horizontal abduction and dorsiflexion
open chain supination
triplanar movement which combines movements of calcaneal inversion, talar horizontal adduction and plantar flexion
Long plantar ligament
deep structure of foot, attaches from calcaneus to 3,4, and 5th metatarsals.
converts the tuberosity of the cuboid bone into a tunnel for Fib Longus
Short plantar ligament
plantar calcaneocuboidal ligament
Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring ligament)
important in maintaining the medial longitudinal arch
when the toes extend, the plantar fascia:
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