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24 terms

Chapter 11 Genetics & Inheritance

Terms and Definitions
STUDY
PLAY
genotype
genetic make-up of an organism, eg., Tt
phenotype
physical characteristic of an organism, eg., blonde hair
homozygous
organism that has two identical alleles for a gene = pure breed=true breeding, eg., TT or tt
heterozygous
organism that has different alleles for a gene, eg., Tt
Incomplete dominance
Heterozygous phenotype is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes; eg., white and black result in gray
Co-dominance
when both alleles show up in the phenotypes, eg, solid color feather parents in speckled chicken feathers
Gene
factors that determine a trait passed from one generation to the next
Genetics
study of heredity; how traits are inherited from geneneration to generation
allele
different forms of a gene
dominant
dominant allele hides or masks the recessive; represented by a capital letter
recessive
recessive allele is hidden or masked by the dominant
Law of Segregation
For sexually reproducing organisms (like plants and animals) they inherit 2 copies of each gene.
Gamete
sex cells used for reproduction; guys and girls produce gametes
Probability
likelihood that a particular event will take place
Gregor Mendel
the father of genetics
Fertilization
process in which male and female gametes join to produce a new cell
hybrid
offspring between parents with different traits and characteristics..heterozygous
Pure breed
describes organisms that for many generations have offspring identical to the parent in a characteristic..homozygous
Trait
specific characteristic of an individual
Principle of Dominance
Some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
Independent Assortment
genes for different traits segregate independently when gametes are formed
Punnett Square
mathematical diagram that can be used to predict the offspring of a genetic cross
Multiple Allele
more than two alleles are involved in a phenotype
Polygenic Trait
involves the interaction of two or more genes