19 terms

Periodic Trends

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Item 1: Part A
Classify the following elements as main group elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals.
Main group elements: Pb, P, Ca
Transition metals: Cu, Ag
Inner transition metals: U
Item 1: Part B
Classify the following elements as halogens, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, or noble gases.
Halogens: Br, F
Alkali metals: Fr, Rb
Alkaline earth metals: Ba
Noble gases: Xe
Item 1: Part C
Match each element to its period.
Period 1: He
Period 2: Be
Period 3: Al
Period 4: Ni
Period 5: Rh
Period 6: W
Period 7: Fr
Item 1: Part D
Classify the following elements as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid (semimetal).
Metal: Hg, K
Nonmetal: N, Kr
Metalloid: Ge, As
Item 2: Part A
How many orbitals are there in the third shell (n=3)?
9
Item 2: Part B
Show the orbital-filling diagram for N (nitrogen). Stack the subshells in order of energy, with the lowest-energy subshell at the bottom and the highest-energy subshell at the top.
1s²2s²2p³
Item 2: Part C
Show the orbital-filling diagram for S (sulfur). Stack the subshells in order of energy, with the lowest-energy subshell at the bottom and the highest-energy subshell at the top.
1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁴
Item 2: Part D
Show the orbital-filling diagram for Br (bromine). Stack the subshells in order of energy, with the lowest-energy subshell at the bottom and the highest-energy subshell at the top.
1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁶4s²3d¹⁰4p⁵
Item 3: Part A
Give the complete ground-state electron configuration for silicon (Si).
1s^22s^22p^63s^23p^2
Item 3: Part B
Give the ground-state electron configuration for silicon (Si) using noble-gas shorthand.
[Ne]3s^23p^2
Item 3: Part C
Give the actual ground-state electron configuration for copper (Cu) using the complete form.
1s^22s^22p^63s^23p^63d^104s^1
Item 3: Part D
Give the ground-state electron configuration for copper (Cu) using noble-gas shorthand.
[Ar]3d^104s^1
Item 4: Part A
Classify each orbital diagram for ground-state electron configurations by the rule or principle it violates.
Aufbau violation:
4s ↑↓ 3d ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ 5s ↑
3s ↑ 3p ↑ ↑ ↑
Hund violation:
4s ↑↓ 3d ↑↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑
3s ↑↓ 3p ↑↓ ↑↓
Pauli violation
2s ↑↑ 2p ↑ ↑ ↑
Item 4: Part B
The following sets of quantum numbers, listed in the order n, ℓ, mℓ, and ms, were written for the last electrons added to an atom. Identify which sets are valid and classify the others by the rule or principle that is violated.
Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.
Other violation:
3 1 -1 +1/2
3 1 0 +1/2
3 -3 +1 +1/2
Pauli violation
3 2 -1 +1/2
3 2 0 +1/2
3 2 +1 +1/2
3 2 0 +1/2
3 2 + 2 +1/2
Valid:
4 0 0 +1/2
4 0 0 -1/2
5 1 -1 +1/2
5 1 0 +1/2
5 1 +1 +1/2
Item 5: Part A
List a possible set of four quantum numbers (n, ℓ, mℓ, ms) in order, for the highest energy electron in gallium, Ga. Refer to the periodic table as necessary.
n,ℓ,mℓ,ms
4,1,-1,+1/2
Item 6: Part A
Identify which sets of quantum numbers are valid for an electron. Each set is ordered (n,ℓ,mℓ,ms).
Check all that apply.
4,3,2,1/2
1,3,0,1/2
1,2,0,-1/2
3,0,0,1/2
0,2,1,-1/2
3,2,1,1/2
3,0,0,1/2
3,-2,-1,0
2,-2,-2,-1/2
2,1,1,1/2
4,3,5,-1/2
1,1,0,-1/2
Check all that apply.
4,3,2,1/2 valid
1,3,0,1/2 invalid bc ℓ>n-1
1,2,0,-1/2 invalid bc ℓ>n-1
3,0,0,1/2 valid
0,2,1,-1/2 invalid bc ℓ>n-1
3,2,1,1/2 valid
3,0,0,1/2 valid
3,-2,-1,0 invalid ℓ cannot be -
2,-2,-2,-1/2 invalid ℓ cannot b -
2,1,1,1/2 valid
4,3,5,-1/2 invalid bc mℓ>4
1,1,0,-1/2 invalid bc ℓ>n-1
Item 6: Part B
Identify the sets of quantum numbers that describe all the electrons in the ground state of a neutral beryllium atom, Be. Each set is ordered (n,ℓ,mℓ,ms).
Electrons in Be:
1,0,0,1/2
1,0,0,-1/2
2,0,0,1/2
2,0,0,-1/2
Electrons not in Be
2,1,0,1/2
2,1,0,-1/2
2,1,-1,1/2
2,1,-1,-1/2
Item 7: Part A
Which of the following trends is indirectly proportional to effective nuclear charge, Zeff?
Electron affinity
Atomic size
Ionization energy
All of the answers are correct.
Atomic Size
Item 8: Part A
Rank the following elements in order of decreasing atomic radius.
Largest
Sr
Ca
Mg
Be
Smallest